Origin of At-Tahiyyatu (Tashahhud)

Origin of At-Tahiyyatu (Tashahhud).jpg

Did Tashahhud Originated During the Mi‘raj?

Quote:

” The origin of the tashahhud and that it happened during the ascent of our Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) to heaven (the Mi‘raaj) is something for which there is no basis in Islam.

The scholars of the Standing Committee were asked:

 Is the tashahhud that we recite in the prayer what the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said when he prostrated at Sidrat al-Muntaha during the Mi‘raj?

They replied: It was narrated that Ibn Mas‘ood (may Allah be pleased with him) said:

“The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) taught me the Tashahhud, holding my hand between his hands, just as he would teach me a Surah from the Quran:

‘At-tahiyyatu Lillahi wa’s-salawatu wa’t-tayyibat, as-salamu ‘alayka ayyuha’n-Nabiyyu wa rahmat-Allahi wa barakatuhu. As-salamu ‘alayna wa ‘ala ‘ibad-Illah is-saliheen. Ash-hadu an la ilaha ill-Allah wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan ‘abduhu wa rasooluhu (All compliments, prayers and pure words are due to Allah. Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings. Peace be upon us, and on the righteous slaves of Allah. I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger).’

This was narrated by the jama‘ah.

According to another version, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “When one of you sits during the prayer, let him say: al-tahiyyatu Lillahi…” … and when he came to the words, “wa ‘ala ‘ibad-Illah al-saaliheen”, he said: “If you do that, you will have greeted with salam every righteous slave of Allah in heaven and on earth.” And at the end he said: “Then let him choose whatever he wants to ask for.” Agreed upon.

Ahmad narrated from Abu ‘Ubaydah, from his father ‘Abd-Allah ibn Mas‘ood (may Allah be pleased with him) that he said: The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) taught him the tashahhud and instructed him to teach it to the people: “Al-tahiyyatu Lillahi…” and he quoted it.

Al-Tirmidhi said:

The hadeeth (narration) of Ibn Mas‘ood  (may Allah be pleased with him) is the soundest hadeeth about the tashahhud, and is to be acted upon according to most of the scholars among the Sahabah (Companions) and Tabi‘een (Successors). Abu Bakr al-Bazzar said: It is the soundest hadeeth about the tashahhud. And he said: It was narrated via twenty-odd hadeeths. Among those who were certain about that was al-Baghawi in Sharh al-Sunnah. End quote.

Thus you will know that this format is the soundest that has been proven from the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).

*With regard to whether the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) recited the tashahhud when he was prostrating at Sidrat al-Muntaha on the night of the Mi‘raj,we do not know of any basis for saying that he prostrated in that place on the night of the Mi‘raj. 

Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn Baz, Shaykh ‘Abd al-Razzaq ‘Afeefi, Shaykh ‘Abd-Allah ibn Ghadyan, Shaykh ‘Abd-Allah ibn Qa‘ood. [Fatawa al-Lajnah al-Daimah, 7/6,7] [End quote.]

Quote:

Anwar Shāh al-Kashmīrī (Deobandi), in his al-ʿArf al-Shadhī:

وذكر بعض الأحناف قال رسول الله – ﷺ – في ليلة الإسراء : «التحيات لله» إلخ ، قال الله تعالى : السلام عليك أيها النبي» إلخ ، قال رسول الله – ﷺ -: «السلام علينا وعلى عباد: الله» إلخ ، ولكني لم أجد سند هذه الرواية ، وذكره في الروض الأنف .

And some Ḥanafīs mentioned…” then quoted the report; he continues:  “However, I did not find a chain to this narration, and [Imām al-Suhaylī] mentioned it in al-Raw al-Unuf.”

[Al-ʿArf al-Shadhī under ḥadīth (289). Note: Some of the scholars named in the previous passages were not of a anafī background.]

Mulla Ali Qāri (ra) the author of “Mirqāt-ul-Mafātīh”, the commentary on “Mishkāt-ul-Masābīh” explains the origin of Tashahhud as follows:

قَالَ ابْنُ الْمَلَكِ: رُوِيَ: أَنَّهُ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لَمَّا عُرِجَ بِهِ أَثْنَى عَلَى اللَّهِ تَعَالَى بِهَذِهِ الْكَلِمَاتِ فَقَالَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى: «السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ، فَقَالَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ: السَّلَامُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ، فَقَالَ جِبْرِيلُ: أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ، وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ»

Ibn Al-Malak (RA) says: It has been narrated when the ProphetSallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam was taken up (on the occasion of Mi’raj), he praised Allah Ta’ala with the following words:

التَّحِيَّاتُ لِلَّهِ وَالصَّلَوَاتُ وَالطَّيِّبَاتُ

Allah (SWT) replied:

 السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ

Then the Prophet Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam said:

السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ

Then Jibreel (AS) said: [1]

أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ، وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ

Yusuf Binnori refers to this incident in “Ma’ārif As-Sunan” as follows:[2]

واما قوله السلام عليك أيها النبي ورحمة الله وبركاته فهي ثلاثة بمقابلة الثلاثة التي اثني بها النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم علي ربه ليلة الاسراء

As for his saying: ‘Peace be unto you, O Prophet, the mercy of Allah and His blessings (السلام عليك أيها النبي ورحمة الله وبركاته),” these are three in exchange for the three with which the Prophet Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam praised his Lord on the Night of Isrā (Mi’raj).”

Shaykh Ahmad Al-Tahtāwi also mentions in “Hāshiyah Al-Tahtāwi ‘Alā Marāqi Al-Fallāh”:

إذا قعد أحدكم في الصلاة فليقل التحيات لله والصلوات والطيبات… وهي الصادرة منه ليلة الإسراء

“When one of you sits in Salah, he should say: التحيات لله والصلوات والطيبات… This (Tashahhud) originated from him (i.e. the Prophet Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) on the Night of Isrā‘. [3]

[1]  [مرقاة المفاتيح، كتاب الصلاة، باب التشهد، ج٢، ص٧٣٢، دار الفكر]

[2]  واما قوله السلام عليك أيها النبي ورحمة الله وبركاته فهي ثلاثة بمقابلة الثلاثة التي اثني بها النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم علي ربه ليلة الاسراء الخ

[معارف السنن، باب ما جاء في التشهد، ج٣، ص٨٥، سعيد]

عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، قَالَ: كُنَّا إِذَا كُنَّا مَعَ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فِي الصَّلاَةِ، قُلْنَا: السَّلاَمُ عَلَى اللَّهِ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ، السَّلاَمُ عَلَى فُلاَنٍ وَفُلاَنٍ، فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: ” لاَ تَقُولُوا السَّلاَمُ عَلَى اللَّهِ، فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ السَّلاَمُ، وَلَكِنْ قُولُوا: التَّحِيَّاتُ لِلَّهِ وَالصَّلَوَاتُ وَالطَّيِّبَاتُ، السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ، السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ، فَإِنَّكُمْ إِذَا قُلْتُمْ أَصَابَ كُلَّ عَبْدٍ فِي السَّمَاءِ أَوْ بَيْنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالأَرْضِ، أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ، وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ، ثُمَّ يَتَخَيَّرُ مِنَ الدُّعَاءِ أَعْجَبَهُ إِلَيْهِ، فَيَدْعُو

[صحيح البخاري، كتاب الاذان، باب ما يتخير من الدعاء بعد التثهد، ج١، ص١٦٧، دار طوق النجاة]

[سنن النسائي، كتاب السهو، باب تخيير الدعاء بعد الصلاة، ج٣، ص٥٠، مكتب المطبوعات الاسلامية]

[إعلاء السنن، كتاب الصلاة، باب التشهد ووجوبه، ج٣، ص١١٤، ادارة القرآن كراتشي]

[3]  إذا قعد أحدكم في الصلاة فليقل “التحيات لله والصلوات والطيبات”… جمع تحية من حيا فلان فلانا إذا دعا له عند ملاقاته كقولهم حياك الله أي أبقاك والمراد هنا أعز الألفاظ التي تدل على الملك والعظمة وكل عبادة قولية لله تعالى والمراد بالصلوات هنا العبادات البدنية والطيبات العبادات المالية لله تعالى وهي الصادرة منه ليلة الإسراء فلما قال ذلك النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بإلهام من الله سبحانه رد الله عليه وحياه بقوله “السلام عليك أيها النبي ورحمة الله وبركاته” فقابل التحيات بالسلام الذي هو تحية الإسلام وقابل الصلوات بالرحمة التي هي بمعناهاوقابل الطيبات بالبركات المناسبة للمال لكونها النمو والكثرة فلما أفاض الله سبحانه وتعالى على النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بالثلاثة مقابل الثلاثة والنبي أكرم خلق الله وأجودهم عطف بإحسانه من ذلك الفيض لإخوانه الأنبياء والملائكة وصالحي المؤمنين من الإنس والجن فقال: “السلام علينا وعلى عباد الله الصالحين” فعمهم به كما قال صلى الله عليه وسلم: “إنكم إذا قلتموها أصابت كل عبد صالح في السماء والأرض” وليس أشرف من العبودية في صفات المخلوقين هي الرضا بما يفعل الرب والعبادة ما يرضيه والعبودية أقوى من العبادة لبقائها في العقبى بخلاف العبادة والصالح القائم بحقوق الله تعالى وحقوق العباد فلما أن قال ذلك صلى الله عليه وسلم إحسانا منه شهد أهل الملكوت الأعلى والسماوات وجبريل بوحي وإلهام بأن قال كل منهم “أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأشهد أن محمدا عبده ورسوله” أي أعلم وأبين وجمع بين أشرف أسمائه وبين أشرف وصف للمخلوق وأرقى وصف ملتزم للنبوة لمقام الجمع

قوله: “لمقام الجمع” أي لأن المقام للجمع فكما جمع في التحيات الخ وفي السلام عليك الخ بين ثلاث كذلك جمع له هنا بين ثلاث أشرف الأسماء وهو محمد وأشرف صفات الإنسان وهو العبودية وأشرف وصف مستلزم للنبوة وهو الرسالة

[حاشية الطحطاوي علي مراقي الفلاح، كتاب الصلاة، فصل في كيفية تركيب افعال الصلاة، ج١، ص٣٨٧، مكتبة الاسد]

Also cited by Shah Abdul Haq Dehlvi (ra)  in Madaarij-un-Nubawwat:

Faqih Abul Layth has cited it with an incomplete chain in Tambihul Ghafilin, pg.396

‘Allamah ‘Ayni has mentioned that Imam Farwadi has reported it in his book: ‘Thawabul; ‘ibadat‘ (See  Al-Binayah, vol.2 pg.308)

The shortest version is that of ʿAbd al-Laīf Ibn al-Malak, also known asIbn Firishtah, in his Mabāriq al-Azhār.

This is the same text quoted by Mullā ʿAlī al-Qārī in his Mirqāt al-Mafātī.

روي : أنه ﷺ لما عرج به أثنى على الله تعالى بهذه الكلمات ، فقال الله تعالى : «السلام عليك أيها النبي ورحمة الله وبركاته» ، فقال عليه السلام : «السلام علينا وعلى عباد الله الصالحين» ، فقال جبريل : «أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله ، وأشهد أن محمدا عبده ورسوله» .

It has been narrated that when he (s) was raised above [for the Miʿrāj], he praised Allāh Most High with these words [i.e. al-Taḥiyyāt], whereupon Allāh Most High remarked: ‘Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and Allāh’s Mercy and His Blessings.’ He [i.e. the Prophet](s) responded: ‘Peace be upon us and Allāh’s righteous servants.’ Thereafter,Jibrīl said: ‘I testify that there is no deity but Allāh, and I testify that Muḥammad is His slave and messenger.’” [  Mabāriq al-Azhār 1/244 and Mirqāt al-Mafātīḥ under ḥadīth (909).]

This has also been quoted by Imām al-Qurubī in his Tafsīr from IbnʿAbbās with only a partial chain. Preceding the incident is a short academic discussion regarding whether the incident is related to the relevant verses or not.

He states:

روي عن الحسن ومجاهد والضحاك : أن هذه الآية كانت في قصة المعراج ، وهكذا روي في بعض الروايات عن ابن عباس ، وقال بعضهم : جميع القرآن نزل به جبريل عليه السلام على محمد ﷺ إلا هذه الآية فإن النبي ﷺ : هو الذي سمع ليلة المعراج، وقال بعضهم : لم يكن ذلك في قصة المعراج ، لأن ليلة المعراج كانت بمكة وهذه السورة كلها مدنية ، فأما من قال : إنها كانت ليلة المعراج قال : لما صعد النبي ﷺ وبلغ في السموات في مكان مرتفع ومعه جبريل حتى جاوز سدرة المنتهى فقال له جبريل : «إني لم أجاوز هذا الموضع ولم يؤمر بالمجاوزة أحد هذا الموضع غيرك» ، فجاوز النبي ﷺ حتى بلغ الموضع الذي شاء الله ، فأشار إليه جبريل بأن «سلم على ربك» ، فقال النبي ﷺ : «التحيات لله والصلوات والطيبات» . قال الله تعالى : «السلام عليك أيها النبي ورحمة الله وبركاته» ، فأراد النبي ﷺ أن يكون لأمته حظ في السلام فقال : «السلام علينا وعلى عباد الله الصالحين» ، فقال جبريل وأهل السموات كلهم : «أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأشهد أن محمدا عبده ورسوله» .

It is narrated from al-asan, Mujāhid and al-Dahhak that this āyah was in the story of Miʿrāj.

Likewise has been said in some narrations from Ibn ʿAbbās.

Some maintain that Jibrīl descended with the whole Qur’ān upon Muhammad(s) except for this āyah, because the Prophet(s) was the one who heard on the night of Miʿrāj.

* Others maintain it did not occur in the incident of Miʿrāj becausethe night of Miʿrāj had occurred in [the era of] Makkah; and this Sūrah, in its totality, was revealed in Madīnah.

Consequently, those who say it was in the night of Miʿrāj also say when the Prophet (s) ascended and reached the heavens in a lofty place, Jibrīl was with him until he [i.e. the Prophet(s)] had gone beyond the Sidrat al-Muntahā. Jibrīl said to him: ‘I cannot go beyond this juncture; none have been permitted to pass this point other than you.’ The Prophet (s)passed through until he reached the place which Allāh had willed. Jibrīl indicated to him [i.e. the Prophet(s)] to convey Salām to his Lord, so theProphet(s) said: ‘All verbal, physical and monetary deeds are for Allāh…’” The rest is as mentioned above. [Tafsīr al-Qurubī under [al-Baqarah: 2/285-286].

Imām al-Qurtubī seems to have taken it almost verbatim from Abū ’l-Layth al-Samarqandī, who mentioned it in his Bahr al-ʿUlūm ( 1/189 (d. 373 AH).

It has also been mentioned in a later work known as Ruh al-Bayān of Abū ’l-Fidā al-Khalwatī (5/21 (d. 1127 AH)

The text is as follows:

وروى- أنه عليه السلام عرج من السماء السابعة إلى السدرة على جناح جبريل ، ثم منها على الرفرف ، وهو بساط عظيم . قال الشيخ عبد الوهاب الشعراني : هو نظير المحفة عندنا . ونادى جبريل من خلفه : يا محمد ، إن الله يثنى عليك فاسمع وأطع ولا يهولنك كلامه ، فبدأ عليه السلام بالثناء ، وهو قوله : «التحيات لله والصلوات والطيبات» أي : العبادات القولية والبدنية والمالية ، فقال تعالى : «السلام عليك أيها النبي ورحمة الله وبركاته» . فعمم عليه السلام سلام الحق ، فقال : «السلام علينا وعلى عباد الله الصالحين» ، فقال جبريل : «أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأشهد أن محمدا عبده ورسوله» .

Aside from a few details, the incident is the same as translated above.

 

The Tashahhud: A Greeting Beyond Place in Our Prayers 
Shaykh Faraz Rabbani:

What does At-Tahiyyat mean?

Abdullah bin Saleh Al-Ijli, said he wanted to find out what it meantand went to a scholar named Al-Kisaai.
Who said it means blessings.

He wasn’t completely satisfied with the answer and so he went to another great scholar Muhammed Ibn-ul-Hassan Al Shaibani, he asked the same to him. He told that this is a word that we use to worship Allah.

Abdullah bin Saleh was still not satisfied with the answers then went toMuhammad Ibn-Idrees As-Shafi’ee

Imam Sahai’ee said: why do ask them you have to ask a poet they are not poet…

Imam Shafi’ee explained that when you enter into the court of a king, you offer royal compliments. This is the protocol and the compliments are exclusively for Allah.” ]

* Al-Bukhari (349) and Muslim (162) narrated from Anas ibn Malik (may Allah be pleased with him) the famous hadeeth of the Isra’ (Prophet’s Night Journey) in which it is reported that the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “Then Allah revealed what He revealed to me, and enjoined fifty prayers on me every day and night. I came back down to Moosa(blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) and he said: What did your Lord enjoin upon your ummah? I said: Fifty prayers. He said: Go back to your Lord and ask Him to reduce itI kept going back and forth between my Lord, may He be blessed and exalted, and Moosa(peace be upon him), until He said: ‘O Muhammad, they are five prayers each day and night, for every prayer there will be a tenfold (reward), and that is fifty prayers.”

THE HADITH OF ISRA’ AND MI’RAJ:

COMMEMORATING THE PROPHET’S RAPTURE AND ASCENSION TO HIS LORD

Shaykh As-Sayyid Muhammad ibn `Alawi ibn `Abbas al-Maliki al-Hasani

[…]

Then the Prophet(s) saw his Lord, the Glorious, the Exalted, and he fell prostrate, and at that time his Lord spoke to him and said:“O Muhammad!” He(s) replied:”At your service, O Lord!”Allah(SWT) said:”Ask!(sal).”

The Prophet(s) said:

You have taken to Yourself Ibrahim as a friend, and You have given him an immense kingdom. You have spoken to Musa directly, and have givenDawud an immense kingdom and softened iron and subjected the mountains to him. You have given Sulayman an immense kingdom, and subjected the jinn and men and devils to him, as well as the winds, and You have given him a kingdom the like no one may have after him. You have taught `Isa the Torah and the Evangel, and made him heal those born blind and the lepers, and raise up the dead with Your permission, and You have protected him and his mother from the cursed devil so that the devil had no path by which to harm them!

Allah said: “And I have taken you to Myself as My beloved.”

The narrator said: It is written in the Torah: habibullah “Allah’s Beloved.”

Allah continued:

And I have sent you for all people without exception,  a bearer of glad tidings and a warner;  and I have expanded your breast for you  and relieved you of your burden  and exalted your name;  and I am not mentioned except you are mentioned with Me;  and I have made your Community the best Community ever brought out for the benefit of mankind; and I have made your Community a mean and a middle; and I have made your Community in truth the first  and the last of all Communities; and I have made public address (al-khutba) impermissible for your Community unless they first witness that you are My servant and Messenger;  and I have placed certain people in your Community with Evangels for hearts (i.e. repositories of Allah’s Book);  and I have made you the first Prophet created and the last one sent and the first one heard in My court;  and I have given you Seven of the Oft-Repeated which I gave to no other Prophet before you (i.e. Surat al-Fatiha);  and I have given you the last verses of Surat al-Baqarawhich constitute a treasure from under My Throne which I gave to no other Prophet before you;  and I have given you the Kawthar; and I have given youeight arrows (i.e. shares in good fortune): Islam, Emigration (hijra), Jihad, Charity (sadaqa), Fasting Ramadan, Ordering Good, and Forbidding Evil; and the day I created the heavens and the earth I made obligatory upon you and upon your Community fifty prayers: therefore establish them, you and your Community.”

(al-Shami added:)

Abu Hurayra said: Allah’s Messenger said: My Lord has preferred me over everyone else (faddalani rabbi):

He has sent me as a mercy to the worlds and to all people without exception,  a bearer of glad tidings and a warner;  He has thrown terror into the hearts of my enemies at a distance of a month’s travel;  He has made spoils of war lawful for me while they were not lawful for anyone before me;  the entire earth has been made a ritually pure place of prostration for me;  I was given the words that open, those that close, and those that are comprehensive in meaning (i.e. I was given the apex of eloquence);  My Community was shown to me and there is none of the followers and the followed but he is known to me;  I saw that they would come to a people that wear hair-covered sandals;  I saw that they would come to a people of large faces and small eyes as if they had been pierced with a needle;  nothing of what they would face in the future has been kept hidden from me; and I have been ordered to perform fifty prayers daily. And he has been given three particular merits: He is the master of Messengers (sayyid al-mursalin), the Leader of the Godwary (imam al-muttaqin), and the Chief of those with signs of light on their faces and limbs (qa’id al-ghurr al-muhajjalin). (End of al-Shami’s addition.)

All greetings, blessings and good acts are from You, my Lord.

Greetings to you, O Prophet, and the mercy and blessings of Allah.

Peace be unto us, and unto the righteous servants of Allah.

I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allah.

And I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and messenger.





(Edited by ADHM)

source

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Imam Abu Hanifa’s High Rank in Hadith: Reply to al-Albani et al

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All praise is due to Allah, the Patron of the pious and the righteous. May the most complete and enduring prayers and blessings be upon the Messenger of guidance and the Imam of the pious who is sent as a mercy to the worlds, and upon his family, his companions, and his beneficent followers until the Day of Judgement. Ameen!

This is a beneficial, precious, glorious unique book titled “Abu Hanifa’s High Rank in Hadith” written by the late Muhammed Abdur Rashid al-Nu’mani (may Allah protect him [1]) who was a great investigative scholar, critic, and Hadith Master. He held the post of Grand Shaykh of Hadith and its sciences at the University of Al- Ulum Al-Islamiyyah in Karachi, Pakistan. This school was founded by our teacher, magnificent scholar, Hadith Master, jurist of applied and theoretical law, Al-Mahasin Al-Sayyid Muhammed Yusuf Al-Hussaini al-Banuri – may Allah have mercy on him.

This edition [of the book] is distinguished from former editions in that it was read to the author (may Allah have mercy on him) and he took the time to make some minor changes. He also added a significant amount of important new material. The author, may Allah have mercy on him, spared no effort in collecting many jewels for this book.

Besides the followers of Abu Hanifa, quite a few jurists, Hadith Masters and historians wrote books to eliminate the confusion that some fanatics have stirred up regarding the stature of Imam Abu Hanifa (may Allah be pleased with him). Among these great scholars, are the great Imam, jurist and Hadith Master of North-West Africa, Abu Umar ibn Abd al Barr (follower of Maliki school), the great Imam, Hadith master and critic Shams Al-Din Al-Dhahabi (follower of Shafi’i school), the great Imam, jurist and Hadith Master Yusuf bin Hasan bin Abd Al-Hadi Al-Dimashqi Al-Salihi (follower of Hanbali school) who is more commonly known as ibn Al-Mibrad who died in the year 909 [2]. [In addition to those just mentioned,] the great Imam and the Hadith Master and critic Al-Suyuti (follower of Shafi’i school), the great Imam Hadith Master and critic Muhammed bin Yusuf Al-Salihi (follower of Shafi’i school), the great Shafii Jurist Imam Ibn Hajar Al-Haytami Al-Makki also wrote on this subject.

They authored long books narrating the virtues and excellence of Imam Abu Hanifa, stating his greatness and stature as an [Independent] Jurist. They defended the Imam against disgraceful and envious insulters.

Since the disease of the belittlement of the rank of Imam Abu Hanifa in Hadith has become epidemic in some Arab countries [3] where [earnest] readers are seeking access to refutational publications like this in order to counter accusations of the [smear] campaign against the Imam, we introduced this book to inform people about what the [true] masters of Hadith Science and Jurisprudence have to say about him. This work strives to serve as a lighthouse for those who seek guidance and as a reminder for those who are dreadful partisans. Verily Allah is the guide to the straight path and may the prayers and peace be upon our Prophet, Messenger and Master Muhammed and upon his family and companions, all of them. All praise is due to Allah the Lord of the worlds.

Abd Al-Fattah Abu Ghudda

1 Dhi Al-Qaada 1415, Riyadh

 

Footnotes:

1 At the time Shaykh Abd Al-Fattah Abu Ghudda was preparing this book for publication in the Middle East, the author was alive, but now both the author and the editor passed away. We ask Allah to cover them both in His mercy and turn their graves into a garden of Paradise. Ameen! [Tr]

2 The dates in this book are based on the Islamic Hijri calendar unless otherwise noted.

3 The said disease is spreading rapidly among the Anglophones and hence we decided to make this brilliant work available to the English speaking Muslims. May Allah accept it from us and make it beneficial for those seeking the truth. Ameen! [Tr.]

To download the work please click – HERE

Why do they wear Taweez (Amulets) ?

why-do-they-wear-taweez-amulets

Quote:

Shaykh Sulaymaan ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhaab said:

Know that the scholars among the Sahaabah and Taabi’een andthose who came after them differed as to whether it is permissible to hang up amulets which only contain words from the Qur’aan or names and attributes of Allaah. 

One group said that this is permissible. This was the view of ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘Aas and others. I say, this appears to be the view of Ibn al-Qayyim. 

Shaykh Haafiz Hukami said:

If they – i.e., amulets – contain clearly-written Qur’aanic verses or saheeh ahaadeeth, there was some dispute among the salaf – the Sahaabah, the Taabi’een and those who followed them – as to whether they are permissible.

Some of them – i.e., some of the Salaf – said that this was permissible. This was narrated from ‘Aaishah (may Allaah be pleased with her), Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn ‘Ali, and others among the salaf.

Some of them said that this was not allowed; they regarded it is makrooh and not permitted. They include ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Akeem, ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Amr, ‘Uqbah ibn ‘Aamir, and ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Mas’ood and his companions such as al-Aswad and ‘Alqamah, and those who came after them such as Ibraaheem al-Nakha’i and others – may Allaah have mercy on them.

Quote:

” The view that amulets are not allowed even if they contain words from the Qur’aan is the view of our shaykhs:

The scholars of the Standing Committee said:

” The scholars are agreed that it is haraam to wear amulets if they contain anything other than Qur’aan, but they differed concerning those which do contain Qur’aan.

Some of them said that wearing these is permitted, and others said that it is not permitted. 

The view that it is not permitted is more likely to be correct because of the general meaning of the ahaadeeth, and in order to prevent means of shirk.”

 ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn Baaz,  ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Ghadyaan,  ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Qa’ood. (Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah, 1/212)

 al-Albani said:

” This misguidance is still widespread among the Bedouin, fellahin (peasants) and some of the city-dwellers. Examples include the pearls which some drivers put in their cars, hanging them from the rear-view mirror. Some of them hang an old shoe on the front or back of the car; some hang a horse-shoe on the front of their house or shop. All of that is to ward off the evil eye, or so they claim.
And there are other things which are widespread because of ignorance of Tawheed and the things which nullify it such as actions of shirk and idolatry which the Messengers were only sent and the Books were only revealed to put an end to. It is to Allaah that we complain of the ignorance of Muslims nowadays, and their being far away from their religion. (Silsilat al-Ahaadeeth al-Saheehah, 1/890, 492)

Ibn Tayimyyah

19/64-65

وَيَجُوزُ أَنْ يَكْتُبَ لِلْمُصَابِ وَغَيْرِهِ مِنْ الْمَرْضَى شَيْئًا مِنْ كِتَابِ اللَّهِ وَذِكْرُهُ بِالْمِدَادِ الْمُبَاحِ وَيُغْسَلُ وَيُسْقَى كَمَا نَصَّ عَلَى ذَلِكَ أَحْمَد وَغَيْرُهُ قَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ أَحْمَد: قَرَأْت عَلَى أَبِي ثَنَا يَعْلَى بْنُ عُبَيْدٍ؛ ثَنَا سُفْيَانُ؛ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي لَيْلَى عَنْ الْحَكَمِ؛ عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ جُبَيْرٍ؛ عَنْ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ: إذَا عَسِرَ عَلَى الْمَرْأَةِ وِلَادَتُهَا فَلْيَكْتُبْ: بِسْمِ اللَّهِ لَا إلَهَ إلَّا اللَّهُ الْحَلِيمُ الْكَرِيمُ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظِيمِ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ {كَأَنَّهُمْ يَوْمَ يَرَوْنَهَا لَمْ يَلْبَثُوا إلَّا عَشِيَّةً أَوْ ضُحَاهَا} {كَأَنَّهُمْ يَوْمَ يَرَوْنَ مَا يُوعَدُونَ لَمْ يَلْبَثُوا إلَّا سَاعَةً مِنْ نَهَارٍ بَلَاغٌ فَهَلْ يُهْلَكُ إلَّا الْقَوْمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ} . قَالَ أَبِي: ثَنَا أَسْوَدُ بْنُ عَامِرٍ بِإِسْنَادِهِ بِمَعْنَاهُ وَقَالَ: يُكْتَبُ فِي إنَاءٍ نَظِيفٍ فَيُسْقَى قَالَ أَبِي: وَزَادَ فِيهِ وَكِيعٌ فَتُسْقَى وَيُنْضَحُ مَا دُونَ سُرَّتِهَا قَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ: رَأَيْت أَبِي يَكْتُبُ لِلْمَرْأَةِ فِي جَامٍ أَوْ شَيْءٍ نَظِيفٍ. وَقَالَ أَبُو عَمْرٍو مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ أَحْمَد بْنِ حَمْدَانَ الحيري: أَنَا الْحَسَنُ بْنُ سُفْيَانَ النسوي؛ حَدَّثَنِي عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ أَحْمَد بْنِ شبوية؛ ثنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ

الْحَسَنِ بْنِ شَقِيقٍ؛ ثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ الْمُبَارَكِ؛ عَنْ سُفْيَانَ؛ عَنْ ابْنِ أَبِي لَيْلَى؛ عَنْ الْحَكَمِ؛ عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ جُبَيْرٍ؛ عَنْ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ: إذَا عَسِرَ عَلَى الْمَرْأَةِ وِلَادُهَا فَلْيَكْتُبْ: بِسْمِ اللَّهِ لَا إلَهَ إلَّا اللَّهُ الْعَلِيُّ الْعَظِيمُ لَا إلَهَ إلَّا اللَّهُ الْحَلِيمُ الْكَرِيمُ؛ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ وَتَعَالَى رَبُّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظِيمِ؛ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ {كَأَنَّهُمْ يَوْمَ يَرَوْنَهَا لَمْ يَلْبَثُوا إلَّا عَشِيَّةً أَوْ ضُحَاهَا} {كَأَنَّهُمْ يَوْمَ يَرَوْنَ مَا يُوعَدُونَ لَمْ يَلْبَثُوا إلَّا سَاعَةً مِنْ نَهَارٍ بَلَاغٌ فَهَلْ يُهْلَكُ إلَّا الْقَوْمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ} . قَالَ عَلِيٌّ: يُكْتَبُ فِي كاغدة فَيُعَلَّقُ عَلَى عَضُدِ الْمَرْأَةِ قَالَ عَلِيٌّ: وَقَدْ جَرَّبْنَاهُ فَلَمْ نَرَ شَيْئًا أَعْجَبَ مِنْهُ فَإِذَا وَضَعَتْ تُحِلُّهُ سَرِيعًا ثُمَّ تَجْعَلُهُ فِي خِرْقَةٍ أَوْ تُحْرِقُهُ.

Ibn Taymiyyah said in his Fatawa (19:64): It is permissible to write for the one afflicted [with the evil eye] and others of the sick something from the Book of Allah and His dhikr with permissible ink, and wash [the ink off the paper] and give it to drink, as Ahmad and others have explicated.

Abdullah ibn Ahmad said: ‘I read unto my father: Ya’la ibn ‘Ubayd narrated to us: Sufyan narrated to us: from Muhammad ibn Abi Layla: from al-Hakam: from Sa’id ibn Jubayr: from Ibn ‘Abbas (Allah be pleased with him): he said: When labour becomes difficult for a woman one should write: ‘In Allah’s name, there is no god but Allah, the Clement the Honourable. Glory to Allah Lord of the Magnificent Throne. All praise to Allah Lord of the Worlds. On the day when they behold it, it will be as if they had but tarried for an evening or the morn thereof (79:46), On the day when they behold what they were promised, it will be as if they had but tarried for an hour of a day, A clear message. Shall any be destroyed save evil-living folk? (46:35)’

My father said: ‘Aswad ibn ‘Amir narrated to us with his chain [of narration] the same thing and he said: one writes [the ta’widh] in a clean vessel and gives it to drink’. My father said: ‘and Waki’added in his narration: she is given to drink [from it] and it is sprinkled below her navel. ‘Abdullah said: I saw my father writing [a ta’widh] for a woman on a cup or something clean.’”

Ibn Taymiyyah then transmitted this narration of Ibn ‘Abbasthrough another route, and he said at the end of it: “‘Ali (meaning Ibn al-Hasan, the nephew of the narrator of this narration) said: ‘one writes [the ta’widh] on paper and ties it around the upper arm of a woman’. ‘Ali said: ‘indeed we tried this and did not see anything more remarkable than it. When she delivered, it was quickly disposed of, by subsequently shredding it or burning it.’”

Ibn Taymiyya writes:

“It is permissible to [to recite du’a’s and then] blow upon the sick in Islam, but the words must be from the Qur’an or ahadith. If the words are not, then it is not permissible” [Ibn Taymiyya, At-Tawassul, Chapter on Blowing onto the Sick]

Ibn Taymiyyah in Majmu’ Fataawa, Vol. 19, page 63/64, states:

“It is permissible to write from Kitaabullah (Qur’aan ) and His Thikr (Dhzikar) with permissible ink something for the benefit of one stricken (with a problem) and for sick persons, and to wash (what has been written from the Qur’aan) and to give it to them (the stricken and the sick) to drink as Imaam Ahmad and others have explicitly said.

Abdullah, the son of (Imaam) Ahmad said: ‘I recited to my father(Imaam Ahmad) —the chain of the Hadith – that Ibn Abbaas (radhiyallahu anhu) said: ‘When birth pangs become difficult for a woman, then write: (The relevant Qur’aanic verses)

My father (Imaam Ahmad) said: ‘Aswad Bin Aamir narrated with his Chain of Narration similarly, and he said: ‘It should be written in a clean basin and given to drink.’ My father (Imaam Ahmad) said: Waqee’ added: ‘It should be given to her to drink and (the balance of the water) should be sprinkled (on the area) below her navel.’ Abdullah (Imaam Ahmad’s son) said: ‘I saw my father write (these Qur’aanic verses and the other athkaar) on a clean basin for a woman (in labour).”

Imam Ibn Kathir:

”Whilst doing ghusl they saw Ibn taymiyyah had a taweez (thread) around his neck, he had nits so the taweez was to protect him from them (lice). That taweez was then auctioned, it was sold for 150 dirhams” [al Bidaya wal Nihaya]

”It is said he had lice so he was wearing a mercury thread around his neck. That was then auctioned, it was sold for 150 dirhams.” [Al-‘Uqood ad-Durriyah min Manaaqib… Ibn Taymiyyah]

The original narration can also be found in the Muannaf Ibn Abī Shaybah (‘Awwāmah #23974) with the same chain as mentioned by Imam Ahmad above

حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُسْهِرٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي لَيْلَى، عَنِ الْحَكَمِ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ جُبَيْرٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، قَالَ: إِذَا عَسِرَ عَلَى الْمَرْأَةِ وَلَدُهَا، فَيَكْتُبُ هَاتَيْنِ الْآيَتَيْنِ وَالْكَلِمَاتِ فِي صَحْفَةٍ ثُمَّ تُغْسَلُ فَتُسْقَى مِنْهَا: «بِسْمِ اللَّهِ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْحَلِيمُ الْكَرِيمُ، سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ رَبِّ السَّمَوَاتِ السَّبْعِ وَرَبِّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظِيمِ» {كَأَنَّهُمْ يَوْمَ يَرَوْنَهَا لَمْ يَلْبَثُوا إِلَّا عَشِيَّةً أَوْ ضُحَاهَا} [النازعات: 46] {كَأَنَّهُمْ يَوْمَ يَرَوْنَ مَا يُوعَدُونَ لَمْ يَلْبَثُوا إِلَّا سَاعَةً مِنْ نَهَارٍ، بَلَاغٌ فَهَلْ يُهْلَكُ إِلَّا الْقَوْمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ} [الأحقاف: 35]

As for the different riwāyāt, then these are mentioned in various hanbalī texts, Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah gathers many of them in hisZād al-Ma’ād (Beirut: Mu’assasat al-Risālah 4/326-7)

كِتَابٌ لِلْحُمَّى: قَالَ المروزي: بَلَغَ أبا عبد الله أَنِّي حُمِمْتُ، فَكَتَبَ لِي مِنَ الْحُمَّى رُقْعَةً فِيهَا: بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ، بِسْمِ اللَّهِ، وَبِاللَّهِ، مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ، {قُلْنَا يَا نَارُ كُونِي بَرْدًا وَسَلَامًا عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ} [الأنبياء: 69] ، {وَأَرَادُوا بِهِ كَيْدًا فَجَعَلْنَاهُمُ الْأَخْسَرِينَ} [الأنبياء: 70] ، اللَّهُمَّ رَبَّ جَبْرَائِيلَ، وَمِيكَائِيلَ، وَإِسْرَافِيلَ، اشْفِ صَاحِبَ هَذَا الْكِتَابِ بِحَوْلِكَ وَقُوَّتِكَ وَجَبَرُوتِكَ، إِلَهَ الْحَقِّ آمِينَ.

قَالَ المروزي: وَقَرَأَ عَلَى أبي عبد الله – وَأَنَا أَسْمَعُ – أبو المنذر عمرو بن مجمع، حَدَّثَنَا يونس بن حبان، قَالَ: سَأَلْتُ أبا جعفر محمد بن علي أَنْ أُعَلِّقَ التَّعْوِيذَ، فَقَالَ: إِنْ كَانَ مِنْ كِتَابِ اللَّهِ أَوْ كَلَامٍ عَنْ نَبِيِّ اللَّهِ فَعَلِّقْهُ وَاسْتَشْفِ بِهِ مَا اسْتَطَعْتَ. قُلْتُ: أَكْتُبُ هَذِهِ مِنْ حُمَّى الرِّبْعِ: بِاسْمِ اللَّهِ، وَبِاللَّهِ، وَمُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ إِلَى آخِرِهِ؟ قَالَ: أَيْ نَعَمْ.

وَذَكَرَ أحمد عَنْ عائشة رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهَا، وَغَيْرِهَا أَنَّهُمْ سَهَّلُوا فِي ذَلِكَ.

قَالَ حرب: وَلَمْ يُشَدِّدْ فِيهِ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ حَنْبَلٍ، قَالَ أحمد: وَكَانَ ابْنُ مَسْعُودٍ يَكْرَهُهُ كَرَاهَةً شَدِيدَةً جِدًّا. وَقَالَ أحمد وَقَدْ سُئِلَ عَنِ التَّمَائِمِ تُعَلَّقُ بَعْدَ نُزُولِ الْبَلَاءِ؟ قَالَ: أَرْجُو أَنْ لَا يَكُونَ بِهِ بَأْسٌ.

قَالَ الخلال: وَحَدَّثَنَا عبد الله بن أحمد، قَالَ: رَأَيْتُ أَبِي يَكْتُبُ التَّعْوِيذَ لِلَّذِي يُفْزَعُ، وَلِلْحُمَّى بَعْدَ وُقُوعِ الْبَلَاءِ.

[كِتَابٌ لِعُسْرِ الْوِلَادَةِ]

ِ: قَالَ الخلال: حَدَّثَنِي عبد الله بن أحمد: قَالَ رَأَيْتُ أَبِي يَكْتُبُ لِلْمَرْأَةِ إِذَا عَسُرَ عَلَيْهَا وِلَادَتُهَا فِي جَامٍ أَبْيَضَ، أَوْ شَيْءٍ نَظِيفٍ، يَكْتُبُ حَدِيثَ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ: لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ الْحَلِيمُ الْكَرِيمُ، سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظِيمِ، الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ: {كَأَنَّهُمْ يَوْمَ يَرَوْنَ مَا يُوعَدُونَ لَمْ يَلْبَثُوا إِلَّا سَاعَةً مِنْ نَهَارٍ بَلَاغٌ} [الأحقاف: 35] [الْأَحْقَافِ: 35] ، {كَأَنَّهُمْ يَوْمَ يَرَوْنَهَا لَمْ يَلْبَثُوا إِلَّا عَشِيَّةً أَوْ ضُحَاهَا} [النازعات: 46] [النَّازِعَاتِ: 46] .

قَالَ الخلال: أَنْبَأَنَا أبو بكر المروزي، أَنَّ أبا عبد الله جَاءَهُ رَجُلٌ فَقَالَ: يَا أبا عبد الله! تَكْتُبُ لِامْرَأَةٍ قَدْ عَسُرَ عَلَيْهَا وَلَدُهَا مُنْذُ يَوْمَيْنِ؟ فَقَالَ: قُلْ لَهُ: يَجِيءُ بِجَامٍ

وَاسِعٍ، وَزَعْفَرَانٍ، وَرَأَيْتُهُ يَكْتُبُ لِغَيْرِ وَاحِدٍ، وَيَذْكُرُ عَنْ عكرمة، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ: ( «مَرَّ عِيسَى صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَى نَبِيِّنَا وَعَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ عَلَى بَقَرَةٍ قَدِ اعْتَرَضَ وَلَدُهَا فِي بَطْنِهَا، فَقَالَتْ: يَا كَلِمَةَ اللَّهِ! ادْعُ اللَّهَ لِي أَنْ يُخَلِّصَنِي مِمَّا أَنَا فِيهِ، فَقَالَ: يَا خَالِقَ النَّفْسِ مِنَ النَّفْسِ، وَيَا مُخَلِّصَ النَّفْسِ مِنَ النَّفْسِ، وَيَا مُخْرِجَ النَّفْسِ مِنَ النَّفْسِ، خَلِّصْهَا. قَالَ: فَرَمَتْ بِوَلَدِهَا، فَإِذَا هِيَ قَائِمَةٌ تَشُمُّهُ» ) . قَالَ: فَإِذَا عَسُرَ عَلَى الْمَرْأَةِ وَلَدُهَا، فَاكْتُبْهُ لَهَا. وَكُلُّ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِنَ الرُّقَى، فَإِنَّ كِتَابَتَهُ نَافِعَةٌ.

وَرَخَّصَ جَمَاعَةٌ مِنَ السَّلَفِ فِي كِتَابَةِ بَعْضِ الْقُرْآنِ وَشُرْبِهِ، وَجَعْلِ ذَلِكَ مِنَ الشِّفَاءِ الَّذِي جَعَلَ اللَّهُ فِيهِ.

كِتَابٌ آخَرُ لِذَلِكَ: يُكْتَبُ فِي إِنَاءٍ نَظِيفٍ: {إِذَا السَّمَاءُ انْشَقَّتْ – وَأَذِنَتْ لِرَبِّهَا وَحُقَّتْ – وَإِذَا الْأَرْضُ مُدَّتْ – وَأَلْقَتْ مَا فِيهَا وَتَخَلَّتْ} [الانشقاق: 1 – 4] [الِانْشِقَاقِ: 1-4] وَتَشْرَبُ مِنْهُ الْحَامِلُ، وَيُرَشُّ عَلَى بَطْنِهَا.

Ibn al-Qayyim actually goes on to narrate from Ibn Taymiyyah the following (when a person has a nose bleed 4:328)

كَانَ شَيْخُ الْإِسْلَامِ ابْنُ تَيْمِيَّةَ رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ يَكْتُبُ عَلَى جَبْهَتِهِ: {وَقِيلَ يَاأَرْضُ ابْلَعِي مَاءَكِ وَيَا سَمَاءُ أَقْلِعِي وَغِيضَ الْمَاءُ وَقُضِيَ الْأَمْرُ} [هود: 44] [هُودٍ: 44] . وَسَمِعْتُهُ يَقُولُ: كَتَبْتُهَا لِغَيْرِ وَاحِدٍ فَبَرَأَ، فَقَالَ: وَلَا يَجُوزُ كِتَابَتُهَا بِدَمِ الرَّاعِفِ، كَمَا يَفْعَلُهُ الْجُهَّالُ، فَإِنَّ الدَّمَ نَجِسٌ، فَلَا يَجُوزُ أَنْ يُكْتَبَ بِهِ كَلَامُ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى.

Ibn Al Qayyim has mentioned that it is permissible for one to write verses and duas with saffron in a clean plate, or clean paper, then it should be washed for the patient to drink the washing. (Zaadul-Ma’ad).

Shaikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz, while referring to this says ‘there is no harm in that’ [Fatawa Islamiyah vol.1 pg. 50]

Ibn Qayyim al Jawziyyah says:

Some of our rightly guided ancestors stated that there is no harm if some ayat (Verse) from the Qur’an were written in ink and then washed with water and that the sick person drinks that water. Mujahid issues a statement to that effect and so did Abu Qilabah. It was also reported that Ibn ‘Abbas once commanded that two verses from the Qur’an to be written for a woman who had hard pregnancies and that the verses were then washed with water and she was to drink the water. Also Ayub said, “I saw Abu Qilabah write some Verses from the Qur’an wash it with water and then give the water to a person who was suffering from some type of illness to drink it [Tibb an Nabawi by Ibn Qayyim, Page No. 154, English version]

Ibn Kathir and Qadi Shawkani write:

“Amr ibn Shu’aib (may Allah be pleased with him) said that ‘Rasulu’llah(may Allah bless him and grant him peace) taught my father and grandfather a du’a which we would read before going to sleep, to protect us from fear and anguish.We told our elder children to recite this du’a before going to sleep as well.But for those children who were not yet literate, we would write it and then put it around their necks”
[Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal vol.2;Abu Dawud, in ‘Chapter of Medicine’ [5:67] ;

Tafsir Ibn Kathir, under Sura al-Mu’minun, verse 97; Qadi Shawkani, Fath al-Qadir, under Sura al-Mu’minun, verse 97 ]

Qadi Shawkani writes: “If the Qur’an’s du’a’s are recited and blown on the sick, they will be cured.When the non-believers recite the Qur’an, their blasphemic disease will be cured” [Tafsir Fath al-Qadir, under Sura Bani Isra’il, verse 82]

Allama Sa’idi writes:

Imam an-Nawawi in Sharh Muslim states: ‘There are two types of ahadith concerning blowing. [reciting a du’a and then blowing onto a person]. One of the types is transmitted in Bukhari: ‘There will be people who will enter Paradise without any questioning, who have never been blown upon.’ Imam Muslim has also recorded a hadith in support of those who do not ask to be blown upon.
Imam Bukhari in the chapter on Tibb [Medicine] has written du’as that our Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) recited when doing damm [reciting a du’a and then blowing onto a person].
Imam Muslim states in ‘The Chapter on Virtues of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace)’ that: “When our Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) was ill, the Angel Jibrilcame to him and performed the blowing.” The above types of ahadith apparently seem to contradict each other but in reality there is no contradiction.

“The former type of hadith refers to the prohibition of having read something that is not from the Qur’an and Sunna [i.e.something that has pictures, diagrams or words not from the Qur’an or Sunna] and then blow upon someone. The latter types of ahadith which permit damm refer to those kalimat [words or verses] which have been taught by the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace)”

[Allama Sa’idi, Sharh Sahih Muslim, Chapter of Tibb]

 

Following explanation by Imam al-Qurtubi (rah) on the topic taken from his Tafsir:

Qur’an States: And We are sending down in the Qur’an what is healing and mercy for the believers. And it only increases the wrongdoers in loss.  [Quran 17:82]

In explanation of the verse Imam Qurtubi (rah) writes.

وننزل من القرآن شيئاً شفاء؛ ما فيه كله شفاء.

الثانية: اختلف العلماء في كونه شفاء على قولين: أحدهما ـ أنه شفاء للقلوب بزوال الجهل عنها وإزالة الرّيب، ولكشف غطاء القلب من مرض الجهل لفهم المعجزات والأمور الدالة على الله تعالى. الثاني ـ شفاء من الأمراض الظاهرة بالرُّقى والتعوّذ ونحوه.

عن أبي سعيد: فأفاق وبرأ. فبعث إلينا بالنُّزل وبعث إلينا بالشاء، فأكلنا الطعام أنا وأصحابي وأبَوْا أن يأكلوا من الغنم، حتى أتينا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فأخبرته الخبر فقال: «وما يدريك أنها رقية» قلت: يا رسول الله، شيء ألقي في رُوِعي. قال: كلوا وأطعمونا من الغنم ”

Translation: It has been said that he who does not seek cure through the Qur’an, Allah does not cure him.

Secondly: The scholars interpret that verse in two ways however: the first is that cure is for the hearts, by the removal of ignorance and doubt which hinder the understanding of miracles and matters pointing to Allah Almighty; the second, that cure is for outward diseases, through the use of healing verses [ruqya] and seeking refuge and the like.

(Bukhari and Muslim relate the hadith of ruqiyya through) Abu Sa`id al-Khudri [‘a Companion healed an Arab from scorpion-bite by reciting al-Fatiha on him seven times, and the Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) later asked him: How did you know it was a ruqya?’].

(Qurtubi then lists instructions for making a kind of ruqya called nushra: various verses are recited over a clean container which is then filled with water; the water is then used for wudu’ by someone who already has a valid wudu’, and who also soaks his head and limbs with it but does not use it for ghusl or istinja’; it may be drunk; he then prays two rak`as at the conclusion of which he asks for healing, and so for three days.)

Imam al-Qurtubi wrote in detail about both types of ahadith concerning ta’wiz:

The ta’wiz that are forbidden are those ta’wiz from the Time of Ignorance – ]those which are satanic and contain an element of shirk [mantar, voodoo and magic, etc.]. The ta’wiz, which are permitted are those written with du’as evidently from Qur’an and ahadith only”

[al-Qurtubi, at-Tadhkirat, chapter on ‘Ta’wiz’]

The Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) said: Cure for my Community is in but three verses of Allah’s Book, a mouthful of honey, or cupping.(Tabari) He also said: Ruqya is allowed as long as there is no idolatry [shirk]; and if you can help your brother, help him. Malik ibn Anas said: To hang writings of Allah’s Names upon oneself is permitted for healing and blessing but not for protection against the evil eye.

Abdullah ibn `Amr used to hang a protective invocation taught by the Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) around the necks of his young children. (Abu Dawud and Tirmidhi – hasan)

The Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) and the Companions hated the pagan kind of ruqya or talisman [tamima, qilaada].

 Istishfa’ [seeking blessing] with Qur’an is not shirk, whether hung on oneself or not. The Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) said: Who hangs something (upon oneself), he is left to it for protection. Therefore who hangs Qur’an is certainly taken under Allah’s protection, and He will not leave him to other than Him. Hanging a ruqya is accepted [among the Tabi`in] by: Ibn al-Musayyib, ad-Dahhak, Ja`far as-Sadiq, and Ibn Sirin (End of Qurtubi’s words) [Reference for Above Tafsir of Qurtubi [rah] : al-Jami’ li-ahkam al-Qur’an Volume 013, Page 156-163]

In the Musannaf of Abu Bakr ibn Abi Shayba, the permissibility of hanging a ta`wiz is reported from many of the Companions and early Muslims (Salaf), including:

حدّثنا أبو بكر قال حدثنا عقبة بن خالد عن شعبة عن أبي عصمة قال: سألت سعيد بن المسيب عن التعويذ فقال: لا بأس إذا كان في أديم.

حدّثنا أبو بكر قال حدثنا يحيى بن آدم قال حدثنا حسن عن ليث عن عطاء قال : لا بأس أن يعلق القرءان

Translation: It is narrated that Sa’eed bin Musayb (one of the top ranking Tabi’i) was asked about wearing Amulets, he said: There is “No harm in doing so”

Imam al Ata (rah) the Tabi’i and Faqih of Makkah said: There is no harm in hanging (ayahs of) Quran (around the neck) [Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, Volume No. 5, Page No. 439]

Mujahid, Abd Allah ibn `Amr, Ibn Sirin, `Abayd Allah ibn Abd Allah ibn `Umar, and others (Allah be well pleased with them all) also narrated it [Musannaf, 5.439]

أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ إِذَا فَزِعَ أَحَدُكُمْ فِي النَّوْمِ فَلْيَقُلْ أَعُوذُ بِكَلِمَاتِ اللَّهِ التَّامَّاتِ مِنْ غَضَبِهِ وَعِقَابِهِ وَشَرِّ عِبَادِهِ وَمِنْ هَمَزَاتِ الشَّيَاطِينِ وَأَنْ يَحْضُرُونِ فَإِنَّهَا لَنْ تَضُرَّهُ وَكَانَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عُمَرَ يُلَقِّنُهَا مَنْ بَلَغَ مِنْ وَلَدِهِ وَمَنْ لَمْ يَبْلُغْ مِنْهُمْ كَتَبَهَا فِي صَكٍّ ثُمَّ عَلَّقَهَا فِي عُنُقِهِ

Amr ibn Shu’ayb reported from his father, from his grandfather that Allah’s Messenger (SAW) said, “If any of you gets a nightmare, let him say:

I seek refuge in the perfect words of Allah against His wrath and His punishment and the’ mischief of His slaves and from the temptations of the devils and that which they bring.

Then they will not harm him.” So, Abdullah ibn Amr used to teach this supplication to his grown up children. And, he wrote it down on something and hung it on the neck of those who had not attained puberty.  [Abu Dawud 3893 ,sunan tirmidhi Chapter 99, hadith 3539]

أَبُو دَاوُدَ وَالنَّسَائِيُّ وَالْحَاكِمُ وَقَالَ صَحِيحُ الْإِسْنَادِ

Abu Dawood [rah], Nasai [rah] and Al Hakim [rah] said the Isnad is SAHIH

And

قال ‏ ‏أبو عيسى ‏ ‏هذا ‏ ‏حديث حسن غريب ‏

Imam Tirmidhi after quoting it said: Abu Esa [rah] said the Hadith is Hasan Gharib

Sheikh Abdul Qadir al Jilani (ra) prescribed wearing Amulets

Ghuniya tut Talibeen states: To write an “AMULET (TAWEEZ)” for someone who has fever, and then hanging it around his neck.Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal (ra) said: Once I had fever, and an Amulet (Taweez) was written for me. [Al Ghuniya tut Talibeen, Page No. 51]

In the Musannaf of Abu Bakr ibn Abi Shayba, the permissibility of hanging a ta`wiz is reported from many of the Companions and early Muslims (Salaf), including:

Sa`id ibn al-Musayyib, `Ata’, Mujahid, Abd Allah ibn `Amr, Ibn Sirin, `Abayd Allah ibn Abd Allah ibn `Umar, and others (Allah be well pleased with them all). [Musannaf, 5.439]

As for that which is reported from some, including Ibn Mas`ud (Allah be pleased with him), that hanging ta`wizes is shirk, this is understood to mean those that resemble the one’s used in Jahiliyya, or if used thinking that it is the ta`wiz itself that cures or protects, not Allah, or if it contains impermissible invocations or one’s whose meaning is not known.

Allama Abu Sa`id al-Khadimi in his al-Bariqa al-Mahmudiyya Sharh al-Tariqa al-Muhammadiyya. [4.171-172]

حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ حُجْرٍ، حَدَّثَنَا إِسْمَاعِيلُ بْنُ عَيَّاشٍ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْحَاقَ، عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ شُعَيْبٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ جَدِّهِ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ” إِذَا فَزِعَ أَحَدُكُمْ فِي النَّوْمِ فَلْيَقُلْ أَعُوذُ بِكَلِمَاتِ اللَّهِ التَّامَّةِ مِنْ غَضَبِهِ وَعِقَابِهِ وَشَرِّ عِبَادِهِ وَمِنْ هَمَزَاتِ الشَّيَاطِينِ وَأَنْ يَحْضُرُونِ . فَإِنَّهَا لَنْ تَضُرَّهُ ” . قَالَ وَكَانَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عَمْرٍو يُلَقِّنُهَا مَنْ بَلَغَ مِنْ وَلَدِهِ وَمَنْ لَمْ يَبْلُغْ مِنْهُمْ كَتَبَهَا فِي صَكٍّ ثُمَّ عَلَّقَهَا فِي عُنُقِهِ . قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ غَرِيبٌ

Amr bin Shu’aib narrated from his father, from his grandfather, that the Messenger of Allah said: “When one of you becomes frightened during sleep, then let him say: ‘I seek refuge in Allah’s Perfect Words from His anger, His punishment, and the evil of His creatures, from the whisperings of the Shayatin, and that they should come (A’udhu Bikalimatillahit-Tammati Min Ghadabihi Wa Iqabihi Wa Sharri Ibadih, Wa Min Hamzatish-Shayatini Wa An Yahdurun).’ For verily, they shall not harm him.’”He said: “So Abdullah bin Amr used to teach it to those of his children who attained maturity, and those of them who did not, he would write it and then hang it around his neck.”

Sunan Tirmizi # 3528 (Imam Tirmizi graded it Hasan)

Sunan Abi Dawud # 3893

Musnad Ahmed # 6895 (Shaykh Ahmed Shakir graded it “Sahih”)

Musannaf Ibn Abi Shayba # 3261

Mustadrak Hakim (1/548) [Imam Hakim said “Isnaadu Sahih” ]

Imam Bayhaqi,Kitab al Adab # 993

Imam Nasai , Amal al Yawm wa l Laylah, # 765

Imam Baghawi, Masabih al l Sunnah , (2/216)

Imam Tibrizi,Mishkaat al Masabih ,# 2477

Imam Mundhiri ,At Targheeb wa Tarheeb , # 2384

Imam Mundhiri again in Mukhtasar Sunan Abi Dawud , # 3744

Imam Razi,Tafsir Mafatih al Ghayb ,Surah Muminun,Ayat 97

Imam Nawawi ,Al Adhkar

Imam Alusi , Ruh ul Ma’ani, Under ,Surah Muminun,Ayat 97

Imam Ibn Kathir , Tafseer, ,Surah Muminun,Ayat 97

Imam Dhahabi , Al Tibb al Nabawi, Page :281

Ibn Qayyim , Zaad al Maad

Qadhi Shawkhani, Tafsir, Surah Muminun,Ayat 97

Nawab Siqqiq Hasan khan,Tafsir, Surah Muminun,Ayat 97

Al-Albani In SAHIH Sunan Tirmidhi, # 2793

Imam Ali al Qari writes about the hadith of Amr bin Shu’ayb (Hadith posted):

“This Hadith is the basis for hanging those Tawidh(amulets) which contain the names of Allah ,The glorified and exalted.”

[Mirqat al Mafatih , Volume:5, Page:384 , Dar al Kutub al Ilmiyyah , Beirut 1422 AH/2001CE ]

Imam Nawawi before hadith of Amr bin Shuayb :

وقد يستدل للإباحة بحديث عمرو بن شعيب عن

“One may adduce as evidence for their (amulets) permissibility from the hadith of Amr bin Shu’ayb” [ Imam Nawawi , al Majmu Sharh al Madhdhab, (2/88) , Dar al Fikr , Beirut ]

Abdul Rahman Mubarapuri writes under (sharah of) this hadith {Of Amr bin shuayb}:

قال الشيخ عبد الحق الدهلوي في اللمعات : هذا هو السند في ما يعلق في أعناق الصبيان من التعويذات وفيه كلام ، وأما تعليق الحرز والتمائم مما كان من رسوم الجاهلية فحرام بلا خلاف انتهى“Shaykh Abdul Haq Dehlvi has written in {Ashi’at al Lama’at} that this hadith has the evidence for hanging “Taweedhat” (amulets) in children’s neck. And it is haram by consensus to hang sea shella and stones as was the practice in pre Islamic days”

[ Tuhfatul Ahwadhi, Volume:04 , Page:473 , Dar ul Ihya ut Turath,Beirut,1419 ]

Imam Malik (RA)on Taweedh :

: قال مالك لا بأس بما يعلق على النساء الحيض ، والصبيان من القرآن إذا جعل في كن كقصبة حديد أو جلد يحرز عليه

Imam Malik said : “ There is no harm if something written from Quran is hanged onto menstruating women or children ,provided it is covered with iron or leather

[ Imam Nawawi , , al Majmu Sharh al Madhdhab, (2/88) , Dar al Fikr , Beirut ]

Imam Malik  :وقد قال مالك رحمه الله لا بأس بتعليق الكتب التي فيها أسماء الله عز وجل على أعناق المرضى على وجه التبرك بها إذا لم يرد معلقها بتعليقها مدافعة العين وهذا معناه قبل أن ينزل به شيء من العين ولو نزل به شيء من العين جاز الرقى عند مالك(التمهيد لما في الموطأ من المعاني والأسانيد,)(17/161)

Imam Malik said , there is no blame in hanging written Ruqyas ( i,e amulets) Which contains the names of Allah upon the necks of the sick , to drive the healing blessings contained therein , so long as he does not intend by that to prevent the effects of the evil eye before they fall. If some effects of the evil eye have already befallen one, then it is permissible to employ ruqyas according to Imam Malik, to hang written ones upon oneself. [Ibne abd al barr , At Tamhid, , (17/161),Morocco ]

Saeed bin Musayyib [The Tabayi ]

وسئل سعيد بن المسيب عن الصحف الصغار يكتب فيه القرآن ، فيعلق على النساء والصبيان ؟ فقال : لا بأس بذلك إذا جعل في كير من ورق ، أوحديد ، أو يخرز عليه[شرح السنة ـ للإمام البغوى]12/158-159المكتب الإسلامي – دمشق ـ بيروت ـ 1403هـ – 1983م

Saeed bin Musayyib (RA) was asked concerning putting of Tawidh (amulets) containing verses of Quran around the neck of women and young children.He replied that it is permissible if the Tawidh is contained in leather wrap or some metallic box.

[ Imam Baghawi ,Sharhus Sunnah. 12/158,159, Maktaba al Islami,Beirut 1403 A.H ]

Quote:

” The view that amulets are not allowed even if they contain words from the Qur’aan is the view of our shaykhs”

Great Tabayeen have not only approved the use of Tawidh but have been using them

Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaibah , Kitab al Tibb , Volume :12 , Page : 74 (Dar Qurtuba,Beirut)

حدّثنا أبو بكر قال حدثنا عقبة بن خالد عن شعبة عن أبي عصمة قال: سألت سعيد بن المسيب عن التعويذ فقال: لا بأس إذا كان في أديم.

Abu Ismah said ,I asked Sa’id bin Musayb (one of the top ranking Tabi’i) about wearing Amulets, he said: “There is no harm in when it is covered with leather”

حدّثنا أبو بكر قال حدثنا يحيى بن آدم قال حدثنا حسن عن ليث عن عطاء قال : لا بأس أن يعلق القرءان

Imam al Ata (ra) [the Tabi’i Faqih of Makkah] said: “There is no harm in tying (ayahs of) Quran .”

Ata was asked about a menstruating woman who had a Tawidh on her.HE said ,”If it is on leather she should take it off and if it is in silver box,if she wishes she may put it on and if she wishes she need not put it on

Mujahid would write Tawidh for people and hang it on them.

Abu Ja’far was asked concerning writing something from Qur’an and hanging it or tying it , he did not see anything wrong in it.

Ibn Sirin did not see anything wrong in writing from the Qur’an and tying it.

Ayyub said that he saw Ubaydullah ibn Abdullah ibn Umar was tying a thread in his shoulder .

Abu Jafar was asked concerning hanging Tawidh in children’s neck and he allowed it.

Jubayr said there is no harm in hanging Tawidh written from Qur’an ,provided it is taken off before going to the toilet and before intercourse.

Sihr

Dark/Black Magic

 

Praying 2 Rak’at Sunnah of Fajr when Jam’at is in Progress

timthumb

1. Introduction

There is well known khilaf among the jurists (fuqaha) as to praying the two rak’at sunnah salah of fajr while the congregational obligatory salah has started.

Al-Shafi’i said that if the prescribed prayer has commenced he is not to offer the two rak’as inside or outside the mosque. Al-Nawawi writes that Imam Ahmad and the majority (jamhoor) have the same opinion as Al-Shafi’i [1] whereas the Hanafiyya differ.

قال محمد: يكره إذا أقيمت الصلاة، أن يصلي الرجل تطوعا غير ركعتي الفجر خاصة، فإنه لا بأس بأن يصليهما الرجل إن أخذ المؤذن في الإقامة، وكذلك ينبغي، وهو قول أبي حنيفة رحمه الله

Muhammad (bin al-Hasan al-Shaybani) said: “When the iqamah is announced, it is disliked for a man to pray a non-obligatory prayer, the only exception being the two rak’as of Fajr, for there is no harm in a man’s praying them even though the mu’adhdhin has started the iqamah. That is the verdict of Imam Abu Hanifa.”[2]

2. Evidence for the opinion of the majority (jamhoor)

As stated the opinion of the majority if of impermissibility of offering any nafal prayers while the obligatory (fard) salah is in progress. This view is based on the consideration of the general implication of the well-known hadith;

عن أبي هريرة، عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، قال: «إذا أقيمت الصلاة فلا صلاة إلا المكتوبة

Abu Huraira reported the Messneger of Allah -may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him- as saying: “When the prayer commences, there is no prayer but the obligatory one.”[3]

The same is reported from other companions as well including Ibn ‘Umar.[4]

Prima facie, the most categorical evidence for this view is in the additional words for the above mentioned narration of Abu Huraira recorded by al-Baihaqi in his Sunan al-Kubra i.e.

قيل: يا رسول الله، ولا ركعتي الفجر؟ قال: ولا ركعتي الفجر

“It was said: O Messenger of Allah, ‘Not even the two rak’as of fajr?’ He said, ‘Not even the two rak’as of fajr.’”[5]

There is, however, a question mark on the authenticity of this addendum.  Although Hafiz Ibn Hajr has graded it as Hasan, Al-Baihaqi himself mentioned that two of its narrators, namely: Nasr bin Hajib and his son Yahya, are not reliable.

Al-Shawkani highlights that another narrator Muslim bin Khalid al-Zanji is also controversial (mutakallam fihi).[6]

Another evidence for their opinion is in the following hadith;

عن مالك ابن بحينة: أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم رأى رجلا وقد أقيمت الصلاة يصلي ركعتين، فلما انصرف رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لاث به الناس، وقال له رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: «الصبح أربعا، الصبح أربعا

Narrated Malik Ibn Buhaina: Allah’s Messnger passed by or saw a man praying two Rakat after the Iqama (had been pronounced). When Allah’s Messenger completed the salat (prayer), the people gathered around him (the Prophet) or that man and Allah’s Messenger said to him (protesting), ‘Are there four Rak‘as in Fajr prayer? Are there four Rak‘as in Fajr prayer?”[7]

Al-Nawawi mentions that in this Hadith is an explicit forbiddance for starting the supererogatory (nafal) salah after the obligatory prayer has begun.[8]

The report is narrated from other companions as well. According to another report the person whom the Prophet saw was Ibn ‘Abbas.[9]

3. Proofs for the stance of the Hanafiyya

While the Hanafi scholars agree that generally the rule is that no nafal salah is valid if started after the beginning of the jama’h, they hold that two rak’a sunnah of fajr is an exception due to great importance. Al-‘Ayni refers[10] to the following narrations in making this argument;

عن عائشة رضي الله عنها، قالت: لم يكن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم على شيء من النوافل أشد منه تعاهدا على ركعتي الفجر

Narrated ‘Aishah: “The Prophet was never more regular and strict in offering any Nawafil than the two Rak’a (Sunnah) of the Salatu-ul-Fajr prayer.”[11]

عن أبي هريرة، قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: لا تدعوهما، وإن طردتكم الخيل

Narrated Abu Hurayrah: The Prophet (may peace be upon him) said: “Do not omit them (the two rak’as before the dawn prayer) even if you are driven away by the horses.”[12]

Moreover, the Hanafiyyah seek evidence with the practice of some of the companions. Consider the following reports recorded by al-Tahawi and others.

عن نافع، يقول: أيقظت ابن عمر رضي الله عنهما لصلاة الفجر , وقد أقيمت الصلاة , فقام فصلى الركعتين

Narrated Nafi’: “I awakened Ibn ‘Umar for Fajr Salah, while the (jama’h of) salah had started, he got up and performed two rak’a of salah.”[13]

عن أبي إسحاق، قال: حدثني عبد الله بن أبي موسى، عن أبيه، حين دعاهم سعيد بن العاص، دعا أبا موسى , وحذيفة , وعبد الله بن مسعود رضي الله عنهم , قبل أن يصلي الغداة , ثم خرجوا من عنده وقد أقيمت الصلاة , فجلس عبد الله إلى أسطوانة من المسجد , فصلى الركعتين , ثم دخل في الصلاة “

Abu Ishaq says, “‘Abdullah bin Abu Musa related to me from his father regarding the time Sa’id bin al-‘As called them. He had called Abu Musa, Huzayfa, and ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud before the Fajr salah. When they departed from him, the congregation had already begun, so ‘Abdullah bin Mas’ud positioned himself behind a pillar in the masjid and performed two rak’as sunnah first, then joined the congregation.”[14]

After quoting this, al-Tahawi writes;

فهذا عبد الله قد فعل هذا ومعه حذيفة وأبو موسى لا ينكران ذلك عليه , فدل ذلك على موافقتهما إياه

“And it was ‘Abdullah who did this and with him were Huzayfa and Abu Musa. They did not criticize him for this. It is evidence that they both agreed with him on this issue.”

عن أبي مجلز، قال: دخلت المسجد في صلاة الغداة مع ابن عمر وابن عباس رضي الله عنهم , والإمام يصلي. فأما ابن عمر رضي الله عنهما فدخل في الصف , وأما ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما , فصلى ركعتين , ثم دخل مع الإمام , فلما سلم الإمام قعد ابن عمر مكانه , حتى طلعت الشمس , فقام فركع ركعتين “

Abu al-Mijliz said: “I entered the mosque at the time of Fajr Salah with ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar and ‘Abdullah bin ‘Abbas, may Allah be pleased with them, and the Imam was in prayer so Ibn ‘Umar joined the Salah while Ibn Abbas offered two rak’as then he entered the salah with Imam. When the Imam ended the Salah Ibn ‘Umar sat at his place until the sun rose then he stood up and offered two rak’as (sunnah).”[15]

عن أبي الدرداء أنه كان يدخل المسجد والناس صفوف في صلاة الفجر , فيصلي الركعتين في ناحية المسجد , ثم يدخل مع القوم في الصلاة

Abu Darda stated: “I entered the Masjid when the people had stood row by row in Fajr salah. He performed two rak’as of salah at one side of the mosque, and then joined the congregation in salah.”[16]

عن وبرة ، قال : رأيت ابن عمر يفعله ، وحدثني من رآه فعله مرتين ؛ جاء مرة وهم في الصلاة ، فصلاهما في جانب المسجد ، ثم دخل مرة أخرى فصلى معهم ، ولم يصلهما

Wabrah narrated: “I saw Ibn ‘Umar doing it [i.e. praying the two rak’a of fajr while the jam’ah was in progress]. And one who saw him twice narrated to me. Once he came and the people were praying, so he offered two rak’as in a corner of the mosque [before joining the jam’ah]. And at another time he joined the people in the prayers and did not pray two rak’as.”[17]

4. Analysis of the Proofs

The strength of the evidence of the majority (jamhoor) is evident as their case rests on direct narrations traced back to the Holy Prophet himself, may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. As quoted by Ibn Hajr, Hafiz Ibn Abdul Barr argued that best in the case of this difference is to stick to the sunnah of the Prophet and leave the nawafil at the time of the fard salah and to offer them afterwards.[18]

However, the evidence to the contrary is not such that can be rejected or overlooked. This is especially true for the fact that Ibn ‘Umar who also narrated the Hadith “When the prayer commences, there is no prayer but the obligatory one” is, as shown above, reported to have offered the two rak’a of fajr while the jam’ah was in progress.

Likewise Ibn ‘Abbas was the one whom the Holy Prophet –may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him- questioned about offering the two rak’a at the time of iqama for fajr and yet he also did the same as mentioned above.

Commenting to the narration of Malik bin Buhaina, al-Qurtubi writes;

وهذا إنكار منه صلى الله عليه وسلم على الرجل لصلاته ركعتي الفجر في المسجد والإمام يصلي، ويمكن أن يستدل به أيضا على أن ركعتي الفجر إن وقعت في تلك الحال صحت، لأنه عليه السلام لم يقطع عليه صلاته مع تمكنه من ذلك، والله أعلم

“This points to Holy Prophet’s dislike for the person who stands up for two rak’as of fajr while the imam is leading the prayers. And it may also be inferred that if the two rak’as of fajr are offered this way they are valid because the Holy Prophet did not make him break the salah even though he could. And Allah knows the best!”[19]

Moreover, earlier we saw the narrations mentioning the practice of four companions (Ibn Mas’ud, Ibn ‘Abbas, Ibn ‘Umar and Abu Darda’) who were among the acutest juristic minds in the generation of the companions.

Along with the great emphasis on these two rak’as the general instruction is not to offer them except after the sunrise. One hadith says;

عن أبي هريرة، قال: ” نهى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم عن صلاتين: بعد الفجر حتى تطلع الشمس، وبعد العصر حتى تغرب الشمس

Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah’s Messenger forbade the offering of two Salat (prayers)
1) After the Fajr (early morning) prayer till the sunrises. 2) After the ‘Asr prayer till the sun sets.
[20]

In another hadith it is stated that one who misses the two rak’as can make them after the sunset;

عن أبي هريرة، قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: «من لم يصل ركعتي الفجر فليصلهما بعد ما تطلع الشمس»

Abu Huraira reported that Allah’s Messenger said: “He who has not offered the two rak’as of fajr may offer them after sunrise.”[21]

This makes redeeming them very difficult especially if one has to set on a journey or has some other commitment right after fajr.

5. Conclusion

These factors indicate the general ruling is not without some, albeit, conditional exceptions. The safest and most sound opinion appears to be that while generally it is not recommended to pray while the jam’ah is in progress in case of some urgency one may do it in view of the importance of these two rak’as. Al-Tahawi reconciled all the reports saying the same.[22]

Allah knows the best!

References


[1] Sharh Sahih Muslim, vol.5 pp.222-223
[2] Al-Shaybani, Muhammad bin al-Hasan, Muwatta, Vol.1 p.56
[3] Sahih Muslim, Book 4, Hadith 1532
[4] Al-Tahawi, Sharh Mushkil al-Athar, vol. 10 p.318 Hadith 4132. Shu’aib al-Arna’ut said, “Its narrators are those of al-Sahih except ‘Abdullah bin Marwan and Al-Dhahabi mentioned in Al-Mizan [Al-A’itidal] that Suleman bin ‘Abdul Rahman al-Damishqi graded him as trustworthy (wathaqa) …”
[5] Sunan al-Kubra, Hadith 4225
[6] Nayl al-Awtar, vol.3 p.102
[7] Sahih Bukhari, Book 10, Chapter 38, Hadith 663
[8] Sharh Sahih Muslim, vol.5 p.222
[9] Musnad Ahmad, Hadith 3329. Classified as Hasan by Shu’aib al-Arna’ut.
[10] ‘Umdatul Qari, vol.5 pp.184-185
[11] Sahih Bukhari, Book 19, Chapter 27, Hadith 1169
[12] Sunan Abu Dawud, Book 4, Hadith 1253. Al-Nimawi classified it as sahih (See, Athar al-Sunan, Hadith 708)
[13] Sharh M’ani al-Athar, Hadith 2203. Classified as sahih by al-Nimawi (see, Athar al-Sunan, Hadith 719)
[14] Sharh M’ani al-Athar, Hadith 2198. Taqi Usmani graded its isnad as sahih, (see, Darse Tirmidhi, vol.2 pp.187-188)
[15] Sharh M’ani al-Athar, Hadith 2200. Classified as sahih by al-Nimawi (see, Athar al-Sunan, Hadith 726)
[16] Sharh M’ani al-Athar, Hadith 2205. Classified as hasan by al-Nimawi (see, Athar al-Sunan, Hadith 722)
[17] Musannaf Ibn Abi Shayba, Hadith 6418. One of its narrators is Dalham bin Salih. Abu Dawud said, “There is no problem with him.” Yahya bin Ma’in said, “[He is] da’if.” (see, Tahdhib al-Kamal, vol.8 pp.494-495)
[18] Fath al-Bari, vol.2 pp.150-151
[19] Al-Jami’ li-Ahkam al-Qur’an, vol.1 p.168
[20] Sahih Bukhari, Book 9, Chapter 31, Hadith 588
[21] Jami’ al-Tirmidhi, Book 2, Chapter, 197, Hadith 423 Classified as sahih by al-Nimawi (see, Athar al-Sunan, Hadith 739)
[22] Mushkil al-Athar, vol.10 pp.322-323

Attributes of Allah

attributes-of-allah

Existence (al-Wujud): it is obligatory to believe in the Existence of Allah. Allah exists without a beginning, without an ending and without a place.

Allah exists without a place or shape (al-Wujud). Surat Ibraheem, ayah 10:

 أَفِي اللّهِ شَكٌّ

“The existence of Allah is indubitable.” Mental Proof-Allah exists and is not similar to the other created things. To resemble the creation is to be susceptible to the same weaknesses as that creation. Allah existed before He created place, and His existence does not change.

Oneness (al-Wahdaniyyah): It is obligatory to believe Allah is One without a partner. Allah is One in His Self, Attributes and Creating-hence Allah has no equal.

 Allah is One (al-Wahdaniyya).

لَوْ كَانَ فِيهِمَا آلِهَةٌ إِلَّا اللَّهُ لَفَسَدَتا

 “Had there been other Gods for the heaven and Earth other than Allah, they (heaven and Earth) would not have existed.” Mental Proof-Allah is one, not in terms of numbers, but terms of Oneness in His Godhood.

Allah has no beginning (al-Qidam) i.e. al-Azaliyyah). Surat al-Hadid, ayah 3:

 هُوَ الْأَوَّلُ وَالْآخِرُ

 “Allah is the One whose existence is without a beginning and without an end.” Mental Proof-The Creator has no beginning. The creation has a beginning. The one with a beginning must have a Creator to create it.

*(al-Qidam): It is obligatory to believe Allah has no beginning to His existence. His attributes also have no beginning. Everything other than Allah has a beginning. Allah is the only one without a beginning.

Allah has no end (al-Baqa’). Surat al-Hadid, ayah 3:

 هُوَ الْأَوَّلُ وَالْآخِرُ

 “Allah is the One whose existence is without a beginning and without an end.” Mental Proof-The Creator has no end. The creation has an end. The one with an end must have a Creator to Will that end.

Everlastingness (al-Baqa‘): It is obligatory to believe Allah is Everlasting i.e., His Existence does not end.

Non-Resemblance to the Creations
(al-Mukhalafatu lil-hawadith): Allah does not resemble any of His creations–neither in His Self nor in His Attributes nor in His Creating.

Allah does not resemble any of His creations (al-Mukhalafatu lil-Hawadith).

Surat ash-Shura, ayah 11:

  لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ البَصِيرُ

“Nothing resembles Allah in any way whatsoever.” Mental Proof-Allah is greatly clear of the attributes of the creations, because the attributes of the creations indicate that the creatures are in need of a Creator. Had Allah been attributed with any of these created attributes, He would have been in need of one who created Him, and Allah is clear of that.

Sight (al-Basar): It is obligatory to believe Allah is attributed with Sight. The sight of Allah has no beginning and no end. Allah sees all what is seeable without a pupil, instrument or any other means.

Allah has the attribute of Sight (al-Basar). Surat ash-Shura, ayah 11:

لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ البَصِيرُ

“Nothing resembles Allah in any way whatsoever, and Allah is attributed with Hearing and Sight. Mental Proof-Allah sees all the seeable things, without the need of an eye or light. Allah’s attribute of Sight is not like the sight of the creation. Our sight depends on organs (eyes) and light.

Hearing (as-Sam^): It is obligatory to believe Allah is attributed with Hearing. This is an attribute of Allah which also has no beginning and is everlasting. Allah hears all the hear-able things. He hears without an ear, without means, and without instruments.

Allah has the attribute of Hearing (as-Sam^). Surat ash-Shura, ayah 11:

لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ البَصِيرُ

 “Nothing resembles Allah in any way whatsoever, and Allah is attributed with Hearing and Sight. Mental Proof-Allah hears all of the hearable things without the need of an ear or any other instrument. Allah’s attribute of Hearing is not like the hearing of the creation. Our hearing depends on an organ (ear) and sound resonation.

Speech (al-Kalam) : It is obligatory to believe Allah is attributed with Speech (Kalam). The Kalam of Allah has no beginning and is an everlasting attribute with which Allah orders, forbids, and informs. It is not a letter nor a sound nor a language. The Qur’an and the other revealed Books are expressions of the eternal Kalam of the Self of Allah.

Allah has the attribute of Speech (al-Kalam). Surat an-Nisa’, ayah 164:

 وَكَلَّمَ اللّهُ مُوسَى تَكْلِيمًا

 “Allah spoke to Musa with His Speech (Kalam).”  Mental Proof-The Speech of Allah is not like the speech of the creations. The Speech of Allah is not a sound or a letter or a language. It does not depend on organs (lips, teeth and tongue) and it does not resonate in the ear. The Speech of Allah does not start and stop. Like all of the Attributes of Allah, it has no beginning and no end.

Life (al-Hayah): It is obligatory to believe Allah is attributed with Life. The Life of Allah also has no beginning and no end. The Life of Allah is not like our life. Our life is a combination of body and soul; however, the Life of Allah is not.

Allah has the Attribute of Life (al-Hayah). Suratul-Baqarah, ayah 255:

اللّهُ لاَ إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ الْحَيُّ الْقَيُّومُ

 “No one is God except Allah, the One who is attributed with Life and is not in need of anything.” Mental Proof-Allah has the attribute of Life, but His life is not like the life of the creations. The creations are alive with flesh, blood and souls. The creations occupy the six directions, exist in places, and need sustenance. Allah is greatly clear from the attributes of the creations. The one who possesses the attributes of the creations is susceptible to the same weaknesses that the creations are susceptible to. This weakness does not befit Allah, ta^ala.

Knowledge (al-^Ilm): It is obligatory to believe Allah is attributed with Knowledge. The knowledge of Allah has no beginning and no end. This is an attribute of His Self that does not increase, decrease or develop. Allah knows eternally about His Self, attributes, and what He creates. Nothing is absent from His Knowledge.

Allah has the attribute of Knowledge (al-^Ilm). Surat al-‘Anfal, ayah 75:

إِنَّ اللّهَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ

 “Allah has the perfect knowledge of everything.” Mental proof-Allah has the attribute of knowledge, but His knowledge is not like the knowledge of the creations. The Knowledge of Allah does not increase or decrease. If we say that there is something that Allah does not know about yet, this is attributing ignorance to Allah, and ignorance does not befit Allah. Allah’s Knowledge is perfect, without a beginning or an end.

Will (al-‘Iradah): It is obligatory to believe Allah is attributed with Will. The Will of Allah has no beginning and no end, by His will Allah specifies that which is intellectually possible with certain attributes rather than others.

Allah has the attribute of Will (al-Iradah). Suratat-Takwir, ayah 29:

وَمَا تَشَاؤُونَ إِلَّا أَن يَشَاء اللَّهُ رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ

“You do not will anything except by the Will of Allah, the Lord of the Worlds.” Mental Proof-Everything that Allah Willed in eternity for it to exist must come into existence at the time which Allah Willed for it to exist. Nothing will exist unless Allah willed for it to exist.

Power (al-Qudrah):  It is obligatory to believe Allah is attributed with Power.

Allah’s Power has no beginning and no end, by His Power Allah brings into existence that which is intellectually possible to exist or annihilates it after its existence.

Allah has the attribute of Power (al-Qudrah). Suratal-Baqarah, ayah 109:

إِنَّ اللّهَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

 “Allah has the perfect Power over all things.” Mental Proof-Allah has power over all things. He is not powerless over anything. To be powerless against a creation would mean that Allah had a weakness, and weakness does not befit Allah.

Allah does not need anything 
(al-Qiyamubin-Nafs). Surat al-^Imran, ayah 97:

فَإِنَّ الله غَنِيٌّ عَنِ الْعَالَمِينَ

 “Allah does not need any of the worlds.” Mental Proof-Allah does not need anything, and everything needs Him. Weakness and need are attributes of the creations, and not an attribute of the creator.

Non-neediness of others (al-Qiyamu bin-Nafs): Allah does not need anything.

attributes-of-allah-1

*al-Qadim as a Name of Allah

In his famous treatise on the Sunni creed, Imam al-Tahawi (d.321AH)uses the word ‘al-Qadim’ to refer to Allah, meaning pre-existing or without beginning. This has attracted criticism by some contemporaries who deem such wording as baseless, with some even calling it a bid’a.Such a rash claim against as great a figure as al-Tahawi is harsh, considering the following:

In al-Hakim’s al-Mustadrak ‘ala al-Sahihayn we find al-Qadim listed as one of the Names of Allah (volume 1, page 239, hadith #42 in the 2014 Dar al-Ta’sil edition).
Now then, all the narrators in this chain are used by al-Bukhari and Muslim, except for ‘Abd al-‘Aziz b. Husayn al-Turjuman, who is considered weak by al-Bukhari, Muslim, Yahya b. Ma’in, and Ibn ‘Adi.

Another narration is found in Sunan Abi Dawud (hadith #466 in Shu’ayb al-Arna’ut’s edition) whereby Allah’s Authoratative Power(Sultanih) is described as al-Qadim. Bear in mind that Allah’s Attributes are inseperable from His Essence.

 

In summary, condemning al-Tahawi, one of the great hadith scholars, for using a word to describe Allah that was in currency among hadith narrators, in light of the above, long before theologians exerted their influence on the sciences, is a harsh stance to take. Rather than deeming it a baseless innovation, the best stance would be that it is at least based on a weak hadith and can be used to describe one of Allah’s attributes

al-Aqidah al-Sanusiyya

attributes-of-allah-99-names

Hearing Seeing Hand:Here

ADHM

 

source

Al-Hafiz Abdal Ghani Al-Maqdisi (d.600AH) Attained Healing by Touching Imam Ahmed Ibn Hanbel’s(ra) Grave

Al-Hafiz Abdal Ghani Al-Maqdisi (d.600AH)

Attained Healing by Touching

Imam Ahmed Ibn Hanbel’s (ra) Grave

Abu Muhammad `Abdul-Ghani al-Maqdisi (b.541AH/d.600AH)

He is the Shaikh, the Imam, the `Alim, the Zahid, the Hafidh, Taqi ud-Din Abu Muhammad `Abdul Ghani ibn `Abdul-Wahid ibn `Ali ibn Surur Al-Hanbali Al-Maqdisi.

He was a renowned theologian and one of the greatest Hanbali scholars of his age. He was also a direct descent of `Umar Al-Faruq, the second khalifah of the Muslims.

Imam `Abdul Ghani Al-Maqdisi was born in the city of Jama`il (in today’s Palestine) in the year 541 AH (1146 AD), on the outskirts of Jerusalem.

The Scholar and His Students

Scholars from the four corners of the Earth flocked to see him, hanging on his every word and taking copious notes in the lectures that he gave some three times a week.

His students include many, but perhaps the most important of them was Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah, who transmitted many of his documents as well as chains of transmission in the six hadith collections.

Later Life and Death

Thus in addition to being a towering figure in Hanbali fiqh, beginning to advanced theology, Imam `Abdul Ghani was an accomplished master and commentator on ahadith and their sub-sciences.

He would later die in the year 600 AH (AD 1203), having lived a rich and beneficial life that produced books and students that today the entire Ummah of the Muslims still benefits from in manifold ways. May Allah bless this Imam and give him admittance into the highest palisades of the Paradise.

Quote Wahhabi/Salafi:

Al-Haafidh Abdul-Ghaniyy al-Maqdisi (d. 600H)

He is: al-Imaam al-Haafidh Abu Muhammad Abdul-Ghaniyy bin Abdul-Waahid bin Alee bin Suroor Ibn Raafi’ bin Hussain bin Ja’far al-Maqdisi al-Jammaa’eelee, then ad-Dimashqi, and he has also been given the appellation “Taqiyy ud-Deen”. […]

His creed

The creed of al-Haafidh Abdul-Ghaniyya is Sunni, Salafi, Athari, and he was upon the way of the Salaf of affirming the Names and Attributes whilst negating tashbeeh and takyeef from them – and this is what subjected him to trial at the hands of the innovators.

He died on Monday, 23rd of Rabee al-Awwal in the year 600H, and was buried in al-Quraafah in Egypt, the next day, and he left as a legacy to his son, Abu Moosaa which was: “To safeguard the knowledge of the science of hadeeth in which he tired himself in compiling and supporting, and the taqwaa of Allaah, the Most High, and safeguarding the obedience to Him”.

Refer to “al-Iqtisaad fil-I’tiqaad”, pp. 9-56, tahqeeq Ahmad bin Atiyyah al-Ghaamidee, 1st edition, 1993, Maktabah al-Uloom wal-Hikam, Madinah, KSA.”

1-abu-muhammad-abdul-ghani-al-maqdisi-b-541ahd-600ah

2-abu-muhammad-abdul-ghani-al-maqdisi-b-541ahd-600ah

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6-abu-muhammad-abdul-ghani-al-maqdisi-b-541ahd-600ah

7-abu-muhammad-abdul-ghani-al-maqdisi-b-541ahd-600ah

…continue reading here:

the-blazing-star-in-defence-of-narration-from-malik-al-dar

For more info/scans read Pdf: The Blazing Star in Defence of a Narration from Malik al-Dar

Download link: Here (safe to download)

Al-Hafiz Abdal Ghani al-Maqdisi and how he attained healing by touching the grave of Imam Ahmed ibn Hanbal page, 372- (above scans from page:380-385) Here

Imam Ibn Qudama al-Maqdisi and his advice on performing Tawassul page, 389 Here

Imam Ahmed ibn Hanbal and his use of the blessed Prophetic hair during his inquisition for tabarruk page, 394 Here

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Imam Shafii seeks to gain Barkat (Blessing) from Imam Ahmed’sblessed Shirt (Tabarruk)

Here 

Imam Shafi’s Tawasul through Grave of Imam Abu Hanifah

Here 

Narration of Malik al-Dar – Response to Objections Here

(Edited by ADHM)

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The Creator is Clear from Anthropomorphism – Part3 (800AH to 900AH)

The Creator is Clear

from Anthropomorphism

 Part1
Aqidah of the Pious Predecessors
 Part2
500AH – 700AH
 Part4
 1000AH – 1400AH

Part3

800AH

Imam al-Iraqi (d.826 AH)
Muhaddith Waliyyud-Din Abu Zur’ah Ahmad Ibn ‘Abdir-Rahim al-‘Iraqiyy
In his book ‘Tarh at-Tathrib fi Sharh at-Taqrib’ when explaining the saying of the Prophet sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam: in reference to the Book positioned above the Throne which has the following words: ‘Inna Rahmati sabaqat Ghadabi’,which means that the matters Allah approves of, far exceed in number those He does not, said: “Allah is clear from the acts of sitting, occupying space and directionality. Therefore, the word “inda” in the aforementioned context does not infer place, rather, it infers honourable status. Consequently, the true meaning of the Prophet’s saying is that this book is positioned in a place Allah awarded high status and honour”.


The Hafidh Wali al-Din Abu Zur’ah al-‘Iraqi (d.826) said:
وَلِلشَّيْخِ تَقِيِّ الدِّينِ ابْنِ تَيْمِيَّةَ هُنَا كَلامٌ بَشِعٌ عَجِيبٌ ، يَتَضَمَّنُ مَنْعَ شَدِّ الرَّحْلِ لِلزِّيَارَةِ ، وَأَنَّهُ لَيْسَ مِنَ الْقُرْبِ بَلْ بِضِدِّ ذَلِكَ , وَرَدَّ عَلَيْهِ الشَّيْخُ تَقِيُّ الدِّينِ السُّبْكِيُّ فِي شِفَاءِ السَّقَامِ فَشَفَى صُدُورَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ
“The Shaykh Taqi al-Din ibn Taymiyya has an abominable statement regarding this issue to the effect that travelling to visit [the grave of the Prophet – sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam -] is prohibited and that it is not a pious deed but rather the contrary. Shaykh Taqi al-Din al-Subki replied to him in [his book] “Shifa` al-Saqam” and healed the breasts of the believers [by it].”Source: “Tarh al-Tathrib

Imam Taqi al-Din al-Hisni al-Shafi’i (d.829AH) mentions some points regarding Imam ibn Rajab al-Hanbali (d.795AH) and some of his negative views concerning ibn Taymiyya:

al-Shaykh Zayn al-Din ibn Rajab al-Hanbali was from among those who firmly believed in ibn Taymiyya’s kufr (disbelief), and had (authored) refutations against him. He would say at the top of his voice during some gatherings:

“al-Subki is excused – meaning in regards to his takfir“.

[al-Hisni, Daf’ Shubah man Shabbaha wa Tamarrad, ed. Dar al-Mustafa, pg. 535]

وكان الشيخ زين الدين بن رجب الحنبلي ممن يعتقد كفر ابن تيمية وله عليه الرد. وكان يقول بأعلىصوته في بعض المجالس: معذور (173/أ) السبكي – يعني في تكفيره ([1]).

([1]) في ب: معذور السبكي في تكفيره
دفع شبه من شبه وتمرد، دار المصطفى، ص. ٥٣٥

Imam Taqi al-Din al-Hisni  on ibn Taymiyya’s anti-Ash’ari followers being a fringe minority group who had to keep their beliefs hidden due to fear of facing severe punishment:

“Discretionary punishment and floggings and imprisonment and beheadings have not ceased to be their lot, despite their concealing what they believe and their utmost secrecy in not expressing their foul beliefs except in hidden places after taking care, and locking the doors, and speaking softly, saying that the walls have ears.”

[Taqi al-Din al-Hisni, Daf’ Shubah man Shabbaha wa Tamarrada, 236-7]

Daf Shubah min Shabah, page 123:
وكان الشيخ زين الدين ابن رجب الحنبلي ممن يعتقد كفر ابن تيمية
“Sheikh Zainuddin ibn Rajab al-Hanbali was amongst those that believed that Ibn Taimiyah is a kafir”
On page 90 we read:
وكان الإمام العلامة شيخ الإسلام في زمانه أبو الحسن علي بن إسماعيل القونوي يصرح بأنه منالجهلة بحيث لا يعقل ما يقول. ويخبر أنه أخذ مسألة التفرقة عن شيخه الذي تلقاها عن أفراخ السامرةواليهود الذين أظهروا التشرف بالإسلام.“The Imam, the Allamah Sheikh al-Islam of his time Abu al-Hassan Ali bin Ismail al-Qunuwi declared that he was ignorant and didn’t realize what he said. He (Sheikh Qunuwi) stated that he (Ibn Taimiyah) took the belief of ‘Tafriqa’ from his Sheikh who took it from Samirites and Jews, those who pretend to be Muslims.”
On page 125 we read:قاله بعض الأئمة عنه من أنه زنديق مطلق
“Some scholars deemed him to be an absolute atheist (Zindeeq)”On page 189 we read:
فنسأل الله تعالى العافية مما يرتكبه هذا الزائغ الفاجر الكذاب.
“We ask Allah to preserve us of what this abhorrent, immoral, liar performs.”
We also read:ولقد أسفرت هذه القضية عن زندقته بتجرئه على الإفك على العلماء وعلى أنه لا يعتقد حرمة الكذب
“The result of the case was the atheism of him (Ibn Taimiyah) because he dares to attribute lies to the scholars and did not ascribe to any prohibition on telling lies.”

—————————————————–

Shaykh al-Islam ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani (d.852AH) 

——————————————————

Imam Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, while explaining one of the versions of the hadith of the Prophet Muhammad sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, sometimes referred to as hadith an-Nuzul (and which would give the impression that God descends on Earth every night, in his book Fath al-Bari, volume 3, page 23 (you would find pages 22 and 24 scanned (Here) only so that you can read the full context if needed, but the passage translated below is contained in page 23):

“As for his saying ‘Yanzilu Rabbuna ‘ila s-Samaa’i d-Dunya“, those who confirm a direction to Allah, have relied on this text and saidthat it is the direction of ‘above’ (al-uluww), and this has been refuted by the scholars (al-jumhur), because talking like that equals limiting Allaah, who is exempted from that.  Thereafter people have diverged about the meaning of an-nuzul: some took it according to its literal meaning and verily, these are the anthropomorphists (al-mushabbihah) , and Allaah is absolutely free (exempted) from what they say. Others have resorted to deny the truthfulness of all the hadiths which have been narrated in that regard: those are the Khawaarij and theMu’tazilah, and these are really astonishing because on the one hand they interpret what has reached [us] in the Qur’an which is similar to this, and on the other hand they deny what has come from hadith, either due to ignorance, or to stubbornness. Others have read those texts as they were revealed, believing in them in general, while freeing Allaah from the manner[kayfiyyah] of the anthropomorphists, and these are the majority of the Salaf.   [On top of that], al-Bayhaqi and others have narrated from the four imams, from the two Sufyan, the two Hammad, al-Awza’i, from al-Layth and others, that they DID interpret this text according to what befits Allaah, and what is in use in the language of the Arabs. Some other ones went so far in their interpretation that it ended up being a  type of distortion. Others [still] made a difference between what is a ‘close’ interpretation’, i.e. in use in the language of the Arabs, and what would be a ‘far-fetched’ one, and as a result they have interpreted in some cases and  made tafweed [i.e. leaving the meaning to Allaah]  in some cases, and this has been narrated from imam Malik. It has been confirmed by Ibn Daqiq al-Id that al-Bayhaqi said that the safest [of all these methods] is to believe in those texts without a how (bila kayf) and to not speak about what is intended.”

Imam Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani , in volume 13, page 414, of his book Fath l-Bari, (see scan: Here)

while explaining a hadith relating the Mi’raj (ascension to the skies) of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said:

Al-Khattabi said that in this version there is another term narrated by Sharik which makes it different from the other [versions] and which has not been narrated by anyone else. It is [where it is said] : “fi’lan bihi, i.e. from Jibril to Allaah (al-Jabbaar) and  [Sharik] said : “wa huwa makaanuhu” [i.e. literally it would mean ‘and it is his place’], and [later on] the Prophet said  “O My Lord alleviate for us [the number of prayers]. He [i.e. al-Khattabi] said : a place cannot be attributed to Allaah, therefore here it is the place of the Prophet which is meant, i.e. that he returned where he was standing before leaving.’

In his book Fath al-Bari, Amir al-Mu’minin fi l-hadith (literally the Commander of the believers as far as hadith is concerned), al-Hafidh Ibn Hajar said, in volume 13 page 358 (page 328:scan), while explaining a version of the hadith which means that there is a book above the Throne with an inscription:

“As for his saying ” ‘indahu“, Ibn Battal said that the term “ ‘inda” in the language applies to places, when Allah is free from being incarnated in a place, because being incarnated implies having an end and having been created, and having been created is not suitable for Allah. Therefore, it has been said that the meaning [of this hadith] is that His knowledge has preceded the confirmation of who will [in the end] act in obedience to Allah, and of who will be punished for having committed sins, and this [interpretation] is reinforced  by the hadith which comes next, and which says “ana ‘inda dhann ‘indi“, and it is not at all related to a place.

In this extract he explains the hadith in which there is a statement which could potentially be misunderstood.  It is mentioned in that hadith that a book is “‘indahu” which, if taken literally, would mean that this book is “next to God”, wa l-iyaadhu billaah. Ibn Hajar quotes other Muslim scholars to establish the different meanings of ‘‘inda‘  to explain that here ”indahu’ does not refer to the place at all, and he takes the opportunity to repeat the Muslims’ belief that Allah  exists without a place.  (More Info: Here)


Imam Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani on ibn Taymiyya’s prohibiting of travelling to visit the Prophet’s grave (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam):

Al-Kirmani (d. 786AH) has said: On this issue there has been much discussion in our Syrian lands, and many treatises have been written by both parties. I say: He is referring to Shaykh Taqi al-Din al-Subki and others’ responses to Shaykh Taqi al-Din ibn Taymiyya… and the crux of the matter is that they have pointed out that his position implies that it is prohibited to travel to visit the tomb of the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam)… This is one of the ugliest positions that has been reported of ibn Taymiyya. One of the things he has adduced to deny the claim that there is a consensus on the matter is the report that (Imam) Malik disliked people saying: I have visited the tomb of the Prophet. The discerning scholars of the (Maliki) school have replied that he disliked the phrase out of politeness, and not the visiting itself, for it is one of the best actions and the noblest of pious deeds with which one draws near to Allah the Majestic, and it’s legitimacy is a matter of consensus without any doubt, and Allah is the One who leads to truth.” [ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani, Fath al-Bari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari (Cairo: Mustafa al-Babi al-Halabi, 1959), 3:308]

Shaykh al-Islam ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani has recorded in Lisan al-Mizan (6/319, Hyderabad edn.):

وكم من مبالغة لتوهين كلام الرافضي ادته أحيانا إلى تنقيص علي رضى الله عنه

“How much did he (Ibn Taymiyya) exaggerate in order to weaken the words of the Rafidi (al-Hilli), which at times led him to diminish Ali (radiallahu ‘anh).”[ Read more Here Here]

Shaykh al-Islam ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani, Al-Durar al-Kamina,Volume 1 page 46:وعاد القاضي الشافعي إلى ولايته ونودي بدمشق من اعتقد عقيدة ابن تيمية حل دمه
“The Shafiyye judge returned back to his position and declared in Damascus that whoever ascribed to Ibn Taimiyah’s beliefs should have his blood shed”

Al-Durar al-Kamina, Volume 1 page 49:

Ibn Tayimiyyah was released in Shaam. The people had different views of him. Some of them deemed him as one that considered the likeness of Allah to His creature, due to what he said in ‘Aqeeda al-Hamawiya’ and ‘Wasitiya’ and other (books), such as the hand, foot, leg and face are real attributes of Allah, and He is sitting on the throne by Himself. Then it was said to him (Ibn Taimiyah) that the necessities of these beliefs constitute ascribing to the limitation and partition (of Allah), he (Ibn Taimiyah) replied: ‘I don’t believe that limitation and partition is an attribute of a body.’

Others deemed him as one that concealed unbelief due to his saying that the Prophet is not to be sought for help (laa yustaghaathu bihi) and the fact that this amounted to diminishing and impeding the establishing of the greatness of the Prophet.Amongst the most rigid people against him was al-Noor al-Bakri, and he established a council due to that. Some of the members said: ‘We shall pardon him (Ibn Taimiya)’. He (al-Bakri) replied: ‘There is no meaning in that statement. If he was diminishing he must be killed. If he wasn’t diminishing he will not be pardoned’.

Others considered him a hypocrite because of what he said about Ali:… that he had been forsaken (makhdhoolan) everywhere he went, had repeatedly tried to acquire the Caliphate and never attained it, fought out of lust for power rather than religion, and said that “he loved authority while Uthman loved money.” He would say that Abu Bakr had declared Islam in his old age, fully aware of what he said, while Ali had declared Islam as a boy, and that a boy’s Islam is not considered sound upon his mere words.
And due to his statement about the story of his proposing to thedaughter of Abu Jahl and what he attributed the praises to…Also the story of Abi al-Aas bin al-Rabee and what can be concluded from its concept.

In totality, he said derogatory things such as these, and it was said against him that he was a hypocrite, in view of theProphet’s saying (to Ali): “Only a hypocrite would show you hatred.”
Others deemed him a power seeker due to his praising ibn Tumart and constant mention of him.

Hafidh Abu Sa‘id Al-‘Ala’i, who is the scholarof the scholars of Al-Hafidh Ibn Hajar Al-‘Asqalani, said that Ibn Taymiyah said of Allah, “He has the same volume as the Arsh, neither smaller nor larger.”

(Dhakha’ir Al-Qasr, pp. 32-33)

Shaykh al-Islam ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani has reported an incident in al-Durar al-Kamīna (vol. 1, pp. 164): where again Ibn Taymiyyah descended the steps of the Minbar in order to illustrate his understanding of how Allah descends (nuzūl) as early as the year 705H/1305CE (some 21 years before Ibn Battuta’saccount).

Hāfidh Ibn Ĥajar’s source for this incident was one of Ibn Taymiyyah’s own disciples by the name: Sulaymân Najm al-Dīn al-Tufi al-Ĥanbalī (d. 716/1316).

Note: Also Taqī al-Dīn mentioned it! who lived before the Ĥāfidh Ibn Ĥajar al-Asqalânī.

Ibn Taymiyya’s conception of Allah’s bodily descent is also stated in his own writings, as shown from the following excerpt from his al-Ta’sis fi al-radd `ala asas al-taqdis, written as a refutation of Imam al-Razi who was a fierce enemy of theKarramiyya and other Anthropomorphists:

The Creator, Glorified and Exalted is He, is above the world and His being above is literal, not in the sense of dignity or rank. It may be said of the precedence of a certain object over another that it is with respect to dignity or rank, or that it is with respect to location. For example, respectively: the precedence of the learned over the ignorant and the precedence of the imam over the one praying behind him. Allah’s precedence over the world is not like that, rather, it is a literal precedence (i.e. in time). Similarly the elevation above the world could be said to be with respect to dignity or rank, as for example when it said that the learned is above the ignorant. But Allah’s elevation over the world is not like that, rather He is elevated over it literally (i.e. in space). And this is the known elevation and the known precedence [al-Ta’sis al-radd `ala asas al-Taqdis, vol. 1, pp. 111]


Shaykh al-Islam ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani In his book ‘Fath al-Bari’ said: “Not because it is impossible for the upward and downward directions to apply to Allah does it entail that He cannot be attributed with “Al-‘Uluww” (Aboveness in a metaphorical sense).

This is so because attributing Him with “Al-‘Uluww” (Aboveness) is from the point of status,which is impossibly applicable in a physical sense when in reference to Allah. Hence, it has been related that among the names of Allah are Al-‘Ali, Al-‘Aliyy, and Al-Muta’ali”.

Shaykh al-Islam ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani Rejects the innovated saying that Allah is above the throne‘bi dhatihi’

Regarding the hadith that says:  “God is between you and your qibla”  (إِنَّ رَبَّهُ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ الْقِبْلَةِ)

Ibn Hajar says that in this is a refutation on those who claim that God is upon the throne bi dhatihi (with His Essence) (فِيهِ الرَّدّ عَلَى مَنْ زَعَمَ أَنَّهُ عَلَى الْعَرْش بِذَاتِهِ). source: Here

Imam Al-Asqalaani said they are not Muslims:

قال حذاق المتكلمين ما عرف الله من شبهه بخلقه أو أضاف إليه اليد أو أضاف إليه الولد فمعبودهم الذيعبدوه ليس هو الله وإن سموه به (فتح الباري, ابن حجر العسقلاني, دار المعرفة – بيروت ، 1379, 3 / 359)

The brilliant kalaam scholars said: “The one that likened Aļļaah to His creation, or ascribed a hand to Him (i.e. in the sense of a part or limb) or a child; what he worships is not Aļļaah, even if he called it Aļļaah.

Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani says that in this is a refutation on those who claim that God is above the throne bi dhatihi (with His Essence).

(فِيهِ الرَّدّ عَلَى مَنْ زَعَمَ أَنَّهُ عَلَى الْعَرْش بِذَاتِهِ) Link to Arabic Quote

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Imam Ibn Nasir al-Din Al-Dimashqi (d.846AH)

The Wahhabi/Salafis love to quote Al-Dimashqi and his book al-Radd al-Wafir in defence of their Imam, ibn Taymiyya.

However, the following is a clear cut example of how many of those who defended him weren’t truly aware of all the deviant positions held by him on various issues.

Imam ibn Nasir al-Din al-Dimashqi falls into this category as is evident from the following, where he declares anyone who rejects the Hadiths in relation to the reward and virtue of visiting the grave of the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) a deviant.

It is well known that ibn Taymiyya is the foremost proponent of the view that travelling out to visit the blessed grave of the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) is a reprehensible innovation – a view which he based on the rejection of the aforementioned narrations. Imam ibn Nasir al-Din al-Dimashqi mentions:

“Visiting the grave of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) is a Sunnah of the Muslims, it is unanimously accepted as an act of reward and it is an act of virtue that is encouraged. The Hadiths on this topic have been accepted and practised upon, even though a few of these Hadiths have weakness. Only a deviant will reject them totally.”(Jami’ al-Athar, vol.8 pg.141)

In addition, it is worth noting that Imam ibn Nasir al-Din al-Dimashqi has written extensively on this and has approved several Hadiths on this issue in the book of his which has been quoted from above (Jami’ a-Athar) – see [vol.8 pgs. 129-141.]

900AH

Imam al-Sakhawi (d. 902AH) on ibn Taymiyya:

وكذا ممن حصل من بعض الناس منهم نفره وتحامى عن الانتفاع بعلمهم مع جلالتهم علماً وورعاً وزهداًلإطلاق لسانهم وعدم مداراتهم بحيث يتكلمون ويجرحون بما فيه مبالغة كابن حزم وابن تيمية

“There are also those scholars of great learning, austerity, and asceticism whom people avoided and whose knowledge they were careful not to utilise, because of their loose tongue and lack of tact, which caused them to talk and criticise excessively. Such men were ibn Hazm and ibn Taymiyya.” [al-Sakhawi, I’lan bi al-Tawbikh (pg. 163), (English translation in ‘A history of Muslim Historiography‘, pg. 284, by F. Rosenthal)]

Imam Jamal al-Din Yusuf ibn ‘Abd al-Hadi ibn al-Mibrad al-Hanbali (d.909AH) mentions Imam Zayn al-Din ibn Rajab al-Hanbali’s (d.795AH) book in refutation of three talaqs (in a single sitting) being equal to one – which was a view ibn Taymiyya held and was stubborn upon:

“…ibn Rajab said in the book Mushkil al-Ahadith al-Warida fi ann al-Talaq al-Thalath Wahida (The problematic nature of the narrations in regards to three talaqs being equivalent to one)…” [ibn al-Mibrad al-Hanbali, al-Sayr al-Hath ila ‘Ilm al-Talaq al-Thalath, ed. Dar al-Basha’ir al-Islamiyya 1997, pg. 27]

Note: Imam ibn al-Mibrad al-Hanbali then goes on to quote multiple passages from the above-mentioned book of Imam ibn Rajab al-Hanbali. This shows that although this book of Imam ibn Rajab al-Hanbali may not have survived to this day, it was known and available to those Imams who came just after his time.

قال ابن رجب في كتاب “مشكل الأحاديث الواردة في أن الطلاق الثلاث واحدة”

– السير الحاث الى علم الطلاق الثلاث للإمام جمال الدين يوسف ابن عبد الهادي ابن المبرد الحنبلي

– دار البشائر الإسلامية، ١٩٩٧

– ص. ٢٧

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Shaykh al-Islam Imam Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti (d.911 AH) on ibn Taymiyya:

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“ibn Taymiyya was arrogant. He was self-conceited. It was his habit to represent himself as superior to everybody, to slight the person whom he talked to, and to make fun of great Muslims” [al-Suyuti, Kam’ al-Mu’arid]

Shaykh al-Islam Imam Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti In his book‘Al-‘Iklil fis-tinbat at-Tanzil’ , said: “The Ayah: {ليس كمثله شيء}holds within it a refutation to the creed of the Mushabbihah (those who liken Allah to the creation) and a confirmation that He (Allah) is not a mass, a body, a colour, a taste, and that He does not occupy a space or conform to time”.

Imam Jalal al-Din al-Dawani (d. 918AH) on ibn Taymiyya the Corporealist

Changing Views of ibn Taymiyya by Khaled el-Rouayheb:

In the Sharh al-‘Aqa’id al-‘Adudiyya of Jalal al-Din al-Dawani it is stated that the corporealists are of two kinds. The first are blatantly corporealist and should be regarded as unbelievers. The latter, who are wayward but not unbelievers, “hide behind the caveat bi-la kayfa“, saying that Allah had a body “unlike any other body (la ka-al-ajsam), and position unlike any position, and a relation to this spatial position that was unlike any other relation to a spatial position.” He apparently classified Ibn Taymiyya as belonging to the latter group:

Most of the corporealists are the literalists who follow the literal meaning of the Book and Sunna, and most of them are people of Hadith. Ibn Taymiyya Abu al-Abbas Ahmad and his followers strongly incline to affirm that He is in a direction, and go to extremes in attacking those who deny this. I have seen in one of his books that according to reason there is no difference to saying “He does not exist” and saying “I looked for Him everywhere and I could not find Him”, and he accused those who disagreed on this point of denying the divine attributes (ta’til). And this despite his proficiency in the rational and traditional sciences, as can be seen by anyone who reads his works.

[Jalal al-Din al-Dawani, Sharh al-‘Aqa’id al-‘Adudiyya (Islanbul: ‘Arif Effendi, 1316AH), 43.]

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Imam Ahmad al-Qastallani (d. 923 AH) expressing his outrage on ibn Taymiyya’s

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prohibition of travelling to visit the Prophet’s grave (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam):

“The Shaykh Taqi al-Din ibn Taymiyya has abominable and odd statements on this issue to the effect that travelling to visit the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) is prohibited and is not a pious deed but the contraryShaykh Taqi al-Din al-Subki has replied to him in Shifa al-Saqam and has gratified the hearts of the believers.” [Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Baqi al-Zurqani, Sharh al-Mawahib al-Laduniyya (Cairo1291AH), 8:343]


Shaykh Abul-‘Abbas Shihabud-Din Ahmad Ibn Muhammad al-Qastalaniyy al-Misri (d. 923 AH) In his book ‘Irshad as-Sari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhariyy’,  said: “The Self of Allah is clear from the notions of place and direction”.

Imam al-Qastallani on Tawassul, Tashaffu’ and Istighathah:
While speaking about the Mu’jizat (miracles) of our Prophet – sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam – he mentions that also many of these miracles happen after his death and he also mentions Istighathah in this context and says that this will be discussed in the chapter regarding visiting the noble grave of the Prophet, sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam:
وأما القسم الثانى ما وقع بعد وفاته- ص:وهو ما وقع بعد وفاته- صلى الله عليه وسلم- فكثير جدّا، إذ فى كل حين يقع لخواص أمته من خوارق العادات بسببه مما يدل على تعظيم قدره الكريم ما لا يحصى كالاستغاثة به وغير ذلك مما يأتى فى المقصد الأخير، فى أثناء الكلام على زيارة قبره الشريف المنير
Source: “al-Mawahib al-Ladunniyyah” and the next page

And this is the relevant passage which he refered to above:وينبغى للزائر أن يكثر من الدعاد والتضرع والاستغاثة والتشفع والتوسل به- صلى الله عليه وسلم-، فجدير بمن استشفع به أن يشفعه الله تعالى فيه.واعلم أن الاستغاثة هى طلب الغوث، فالمستغيث يطلب من المستغاث به أن يحصل له الغوث منه، فلا فرق بين أن يعبر بلفظ: الاستغاثة أو التوسل أو التشفع أو التجوّه أو التوجه، لأنهما من الجاه والوجاهة ومعناه: علو القدر والمنزلة.وقد يتوسل بصاحب الجاه إلى من هو أعلى منه، ثم إن كلا من الاستغاثة والتوسل والتشفع والتوجه بالنبى- صلى الله عليه وسلم- كما ذكره فى «تحقيق النصرة» و «مصباح الظلام» – واقع فى كل حال، قبل خلقه وبعد خلقه، فى مدة حياته فى الدنيا وبعد موته فى مدة البرزخ، وبعد البعث فى عرصات القيامة


“The visitor (Za`ir) should supplicate and beseech [Allah] much and [he should] perform Istighathah (seeking aid), Tashaffu’ (seeking intercession) and Tawassul through him (the Prophet) – sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam -, so that he becomes worthy of Allah ta’ala letting the one whose intercession he sought to intercede for him.
Know that Istighathah is seeking aid, and the person who is seeking aid is asking from one by whom aid is sought in order to obtain aid from [other than] him (i.e. the person seeking aid with the Prophet – sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam – is doing this in order to obtain aid from Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala). And that is why there is no difference whether one expresses this by using the wording of Istighathah, Tawassul, Tashaffu’, Tajawwuh or Tawajjuh, because all of this goes back to [asking by the] Jah and Wajahah and its meaning is [to ask by the] high worth and status. Tawassul can be sought from a possessor of rank (Jah) unto one who possesses a higher rank than him.

Add to this: Istighathah, Tawassul, Tashaffu’ and Tawajjuh with the Prophet – sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam – is something that takes place [in reality] – as it’s mentioned in “Tahqiq al-Nusrah [bi Talkhis Ma’alim Dar al-Hijrah]” [by Abu Bakr bin al-Husayn bin ‘Umar al-Maraghi (d. 816 AH)] and “Misbah al-Dhalam [fil Mustaghithin bi Khayr al-Anam]”* [by Abu ‘Abdullah Muhammad bin Musa bin al-Nu’man al-Marakashi (d. 683 AH)] – in every situation, before his creation and after it, in the time of his life in this world, as well as after his death in the period of the Barzakh, and after the resurrection on the day of reckoning.”Source: “Al-Muwahib al-Ladunniyyah” and the next page

After the above qoute he mentions proofs for the permissibility of performing Tawassul with the Prophet – sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam – in the different situations.

Imam Abu ‘Abdullah Muhammad bin Musa bin al-Nu’man al-Marakashi (d. 683 AH) wrote in his book: “Misbah al-Dhalam fil Mustaghithin bi Khayr al-Anam”  and it’s filled with Ahadith and Athar containing Tawassul, Tashaffu’ and Istighathah in every situation (i.e. also after the death of the Prophet, sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam)

The author was born in Tilimsan in the year (b.606/607 AH) and lived prior to Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 728 AH) and Imam Taqi al-Din al-Subki (d. 756 AH) and many leading scholars of the Ahl al-Sunnah after him have referred to his book and reported from it without any objection.

The Shaykh Salah al-Din al-Safadi (d. 764) mentioned that he was a Maliki Faqih, a Zahid, a ‘Abid and a ‘Arif and he also mentioned his book “Misbah al-Dhalam”:
مُحَمَّد بن مُوسَى بن النُّعْمَان الشَّيْخ أَبُو عبد الله المزالي التلمساني … وَكَانَ فَقِيها مالكياً زاهداً عابداً عَارِفًا … وَله تصانيف مِنْهَا كتاب مِصْبَاح الظلام فِي المستغيثين بِخَير الْأَنَام فِي الْيَقَظَة والمنام  Source: “al-Wafi bil Wafiyyat

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Shaykh al-Islam ibn Hajar al-Haytami (d. 974 AH)

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On ibn Taymiyya’s view of impermissibility on travelling to visit the grave of the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam):

“If you say: How can you relate that there is a consensus on the permissible and commendable status of visiting and travelling to it (the Prophet’s grave [sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam]) when ibn Taymiyya among the later Hanbalis deems all of this inappropriate?

I say: Who is ibn Taymiyya so that one takes his words into consideration or relies on them in any religious matter? Is he anything but – in the words of the leading scholars who have followed his rotten statements and unsalable arguments… – a servant whom Allah has forsaken and led astray and clothed in the garments of ignominy… The Shaykh al-Islam, the scholar of the world, concerning whose status, ijtihad, rectitude and prominence there is a consensus, Taqi al-Din al-Subki – may Allah sanctify his soul and cast light on his grave – has dedicated himself to answering him in a separate work (shifa al-saqam fi ziyarat khayr al-anam) in which he has done a great service and shown with dazzling arguments the correct path.” [ibn Hajar al-Haytami, al-Jawhar al-Munazzam fi Ziyarat al-Qabr al-Sharif al-Nabawi al-Mukarram, M. Zaynhum ed. (Cairo: Maktabat Madbuli, 2000), 29-30.]



Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Hajar al-Haytami has recorded in a formal legal opinion in his al-Fatawa al-Hadithiyya (1/183-84) the following:

ابْن تَيْمِية عبد خذله الله وأضلَّه وأعماه وأصمه وأذلَّه، وَبِذَلِك صرح الْأَئِمَّة الَّذين بينوا فَسَاد أَحْوَالهوَكذب أَقْوَاله، وَمن أَرَادَ ذَلِك فَعَلَيهِ بمطالعة كَلَام الإِمَام الْمُجْتَهد الْمُتَّفق على إِمَامَته وجلالته وبلوغهمرتبَة الِاجْتِهَاد أبي الْحسن السُّبْكِيّ وَولده التَّاج وَالشَّيْخ الإِمَام الْعِزّ بن جمَاعَة وَأهل عصرهم، وَغَيرهممن الشَّافِعِيَّة والمالكية وَالْحَنَفِيَّة، وَلم يقصر اعتراضه على متأخري الصُّوفِيَّة بل اعْترض على مثلعمر بن الْخطاب وَعلي بن أبي طَالب رَضِي الله عَنْهُمَا كَمَا يَأْتِي. وَالْحَاصِل أنْ لَا يُقَام لكَلَامه وزن بليَرْمِي فِي كلّ وَعْر وحَزَن، ويعتقد فِيهِ أَنه مُبْتَدع ضالّ ومُضِّلّ جَاهِل غال عَامله الله بعدله، وأجازنا منمثل طَرِيقَته وعقيدته وَفعله آمين

“Ibn Taymiyya was a servant whom Allah abandoned, misguided, blinded, deafened, and humiliated. This has been frankly expressed by the Imams who explained the corruptness of how he was, and the mendacity of what he said. Whoever wants to check this should read the words of the Mujtahid Imam, whose Imamate, greatness, and having reached the rank of Ijtihad are universally acknowledged, Abul Hasan (Taqi al-Din) al-Subki; together with his son Taj (al-Din as-Subki), the Shaykh and Imam al-‘Izz Ibn Jama’a, the scholars of their time, and other Shafi’i, Maliki and Hanafi scholars. Nor did he confine his criticism to later Sufi’s; but censured the likes of Umar ibn al-Khattab and Ali (may Allah be pleased with them), the outcome of which is that his words are devoid of any worth or consideration, to be scattered across the wilds and wastelands, while the man himself is considered an initiator of bid’ah (reprehensible innovations), misled, misleading, ignorant and spiteful. May Allah give him what he deserves, may Allah preserve us from the likes of his way and his beliefs and works, Ameen.”

Shaykh al-Islam ibn Hajar al-Haytami , Al-Fatawa al-Hadithya, page 114:ابن تيمية عبد خذله الله وأضله وأعماه وأصمه وأذله ، وبذلك صرح الأئمة الذين بينوا فساد أحوالهوكذب أقواله.

“Ibn Taimiyah, Allah (swt) let him down, misguided him, made him blind, deaf and disgraced him, and by that the Imams both declared and exposed his false beliefs and lies.”

Due to being one of ibn Taymiyya’s major critics, some modern-day followers of ibn Taymiyya do not hold much love for Shaykh al-Islam ibn Hajar al-Haytami.

They would like to believe that the Imam was not of great standing or knowledge, and that his beliefs were ‘deviant’. However, as a harsh reality check, Imam ‘Uthman ibn Sanad al-Basri (d. 1242AH) had the following to say in praise of Shaykh al-Islam ibn Hajar al-Haytami:  

“He who looks at his works will be dazzled and say: Praise Allah who has allowed the minds of man to reach it’s subtle depths! He is the Shafi’i who mediated between the finer points of law and the subtleties of the discipline of tradition. He did not treat discipline without reaching depths that his contemporaries never hoped to reach. No one disputed with him without finding him an abounding sea of knowledge. He was firm in matters of religion while being high minded, composed and intelligent… Those who came after him have depended on what he has chosen, and thus his works are the standard reference for fatawa, and no Shafi’i will give a fatwa that is not in accordance with what he has considered. The prominent scholars esteem his works, and give it the foremost rating.” [Basri, Matali’ al-Su’ud, 113]

Shaykh al-Islam ibn Hajar al-Haytami  on ibn Taymiyya in his own time and the reality of his followers:

“The scholars of his age rose against him (ibn Taymiyya) and impelled the Sultan to either kill or imprison him, so he imprisoned him until he died and his innovations died out and his darkness disappeared. Then he was supported by followers whose heads Allah has not raised, nor has He granted them power or strength; rather they were afflicted with humiliation and remained under Allah’s wrath, due to their disobedience and their beliefs.” [ibn Hajar al-Haytami, al-Jawhar al-Munazzam, 31]

Shaykh al-Islam ibn Hajar al-Haytami  on ibn Taymiyya’s Suggestion that the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) Let Down Part of his Turban to Mark the Spot Between his Shoulders that Allah Touched with His ‘Hand’

Shaykh al-Islam ibn Hajar al-Haytami  on ibn Taymiyya’s suggestion (via ibn Qayyim) that the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) had let down part of his turban to mark the spot between his shoulders that Allah had touched with His ‘hand’:

“This is among their repulsive opinions and their waywardness, since it is based on their claim, which they argued for at length and castigated Sunnis for rejecting, that Allah is in a direction and is a body, may He be exalted above what the unjust and stubborn say! They have in this regard abominations and heresies to which the ear cannot listen, and one cannot but adjudge them a falsity, a slander and a lie. May Allah shame them and those who say that. The Imam Ahmad (ibn Hanbal) and the distinguished among his school are innocent of this ugly stain. How could it be otherwise, and it is unbelief according to many?” [ibn Hajar al-Haytami, Ashraf al-Wasa-il ila Fahm al-Shama-il, Ahmad al-Mazidi ed. (Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyya, Beirut, 1998), 172-173]

Shaykh al-Islam ibn Hajar al-Haytami  on ibn Taymiyya and his student ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya and those who follow them: “Make sure you do not listen to what is in the books of ibn Taymiyya and his student ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya and other such people who have taken their own whim as their God, and who have been led astray by Allah, and whose hearts and ears have been sealed, and whose eyes have been covered by Him. And who will help them if not Allah? How these heretics (mulhidun) have crossed the lines and broken the fences of the Shari’a and the Haqiqa, thinking that they are on the right path, and they are not! Rather they are in the worst of errors, the foulest of qualities, the most odious loss, and the utmost falsity. May Allah forsake the one who follows them, and purify the earth of their likes.” [ibn Hajar al-Haytami, al-fatawa al-Hadithiyya, 110-113]

And how true were the words of Imam Ibn Hajar al-Haytami (d. 974 AH) when he said:
فإن قلت : كيف تحكي الإجماع السابق على مشروعية الزيارة والسفر إليها وطلبها وابن تيمية من متأخري الحنابلة منكر لمشروعية ذلك كله … قلت : من هو ابن تيمية حتى ينظر إليه أو يعول في شئ من أمور الدين عليه ؟ ! وهل هو إلا كما قال جماعة من الأئمة الذين تعقبوا كلماته الفاسدة ، وحججه الكاسدة … عبد أضله الله تعالى وأغواه ، وألبسه رداء الخزي … ولقد تصدى شيخ الإسلام ، وعالم الأنام ، المجمع على جلالته ، واجتهاده وصلاحه وإمامته ، التقي السبكي ، قدس الله روحه ، ونور ضريحه ، للرد عليه في تصنيف مستقل أفاد فيه وأجاد وأصاب وأوضح بباهر حججه طريق الصواب

If you say: How can you relate that there is a consensus on the permissible and commendable status of visiting and travelling to it (the Prophet’s grave [sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam]) when ibn Taymiyya among the later Hanbalis deems all of this inappropriate?

I say: Who is ibn Taymiyya so that one takes his words into consideration or relies on them in any religious matter?

Is he anything but – in the words of the leading scholars who have followed his rotten statements and unsalable arguments… – a servant whom Allah has forsaken and led astray and clothed in the garments of ignominy…

The Shaykh al-Islam, the scholar of the world, concerning whose status, ijtihad, rectitude and prominence there is a consensus, Taqi al-Din al-Subki – may Allah sanctify his soul and cast light on his grave – has dedicated himself to answering him in a separate work (shifa al-saqam fi ziyarat khayr al-anam) in which he has done a great service and shown with dazzling arguments the correct path.”

Source: “Al-Jawhar al-Munadhdham“; translation taken from: Here

The Creator is Clear from Anthropomorphism(Part4 :1000AH – 1400AH )

Guru of Anthropomorphism

Here


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THE CURE FOR THE HARDNESS OF HEART

On the basis of many spiritual problems, unrest, and hardness of heart lies forgetting the Hereafter and falling into concerns about this world. Many poor people torture themselves to become rich; and many wealthy torture themselves with the ambition to earn more. People lust for the temporal pleasures of this world without thinking about what is the source of them. It should not be forgotten that contentment is the real wealth.

The Prophet (pbuh) states that:

“Allah places wealth in to the hearts of those who aspire to the Hereafter and puts their business in order. World surrenders and comes after them. Allah places poverty into the heart of those who aim to have this world and disrupts their business. In the end, they cannot have more than their share in this world.”(Tirmidhi, Qiyamah, 30/2465)

Here is the prophetic cure for the relief of heart and peace of mind…

When the Prophet (pbuh) is asked the meaning of the word “expand” in the verse “Therefore (for) whomsoever Allah wills to guide, He expands his breast for Islam…” (6; 125), he said that:

“When light goes into a heart, chest opens and expands for it.” When he (pbuh) was asked if there were any signs of this expansion, he replied:

“Yes, there are. To turn one’s face away from this world, which is the place of deception, and to the Hereafter, or the eternal life, and get ready for death before it comes.”(Ghazālī, I, IV, 406-7)

In another tradition, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) says that:

“Allah the Almighty subjects the person who prefers this world over the Hereafter to three afflictions: unceasing worry placed in his heart; poverty, which he cannot get rid of; and insatiable greed.”(Ghazālī, Ihyā, IV, 411)

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