Attributes of Allah

attributes-of-allah

Existence (al-Wujud): it is obligatory to believe in the Existence of Allah. Allah exists without a beginning, without an ending and without a place.

Allah exists without a place or shape (al-Wujud). Surat Ibraheem, ayah 10:

 أَفِي اللّهِ شَكٌّ

“The existence of Allah is indubitable.” Mental Proof-Allah exists and is not similar to the other created things. To resemble the creation is to be susceptible to the same weaknesses as that creation. Allah existed before He created place, and His existence does not change.

Oneness (al-Wahdaniyyah): It is obligatory to believe Allah is One without a partner. Allah is One in His Self, Attributes and Creating-hence Allah has no equal.

 Allah is One (al-Wahdaniyya).

لَوْ كَانَ فِيهِمَا آلِهَةٌ إِلَّا اللَّهُ لَفَسَدَتا

 “Had there been other Gods for the heaven and Earth other than Allah, they (heaven and Earth) would not have existed.” Mental Proof-Allah is one, not in terms of numbers, but terms of Oneness in His Godhood.

Allah has no beginning (al-Qidam) i.e. al-Azaliyyah). Surat al-Hadid, ayah 3:

 هُوَ الْأَوَّلُ وَالْآخِرُ

 “Allah is the One whose existence is without a beginning and without an end.” Mental Proof-The Creator has no beginning. The creation has a beginning. The one with a beginning must have a Creator to create it.

*(al-Qidam): It is obligatory to believe Allah has no beginning to His existence. His attributes also have no beginning. Everything other than Allah has a beginning. Allah is the only one without a beginning.

Allah has no end (al-Baqa’). Surat al-Hadid, ayah 3:

 هُوَ الْأَوَّلُ وَالْآخِرُ

 “Allah is the One whose existence is without a beginning and without an end.” Mental Proof-The Creator has no end. The creation has an end. The one with an end must have a Creator to Will that end.

Everlastingness (al-Baqa‘): It is obligatory to believe Allah is Everlasting i.e., His Existence does not end.

Non-Resemblance to the Creations
(al-Mukhalafatu lil-hawadith): Allah does not resemble any of His creations–neither in His Self nor in His Attributes nor in His Creating.

Allah does not resemble any of His creations (al-Mukhalafatu lil-Hawadith).

Surat ash-Shura, ayah 11:

  لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ البَصِيرُ

“Nothing resembles Allah in any way whatsoever.” Mental Proof-Allah is greatly clear of the attributes of the creations, because the attributes of the creations indicate that the creatures are in need of a Creator. Had Allah been attributed with any of these created attributes, He would have been in need of one who created Him, and Allah is clear of that.

Sight (al-Basar): It is obligatory to believe Allah is attributed with Sight. The sight of Allah has no beginning and no end. Allah sees all what is seeable without a pupil, instrument or any other means.

Allah has the attribute of Sight (al-Basar). Surat ash-Shura, ayah 11:

لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ البَصِيرُ

“Nothing resembles Allah in any way whatsoever, and Allah is attributed with Hearing and Sight. Mental Proof-Allah sees all the seeable things, without the need of an eye or light. Allah’s attribute of Sight is not like the sight of the creation. Our sight depends on organs (eyes) and light.

Hearing (as-Sam^): It is obligatory to believe Allah is attributed with Hearing. This is an attribute of Allah which also has no beginning and is everlasting. Allah hears all the hear-able things. He hears without an ear, without means, and without instruments.

Allah has the attribute of Hearing (as-Sam^). Surat ash-Shura, ayah 11:

لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ البَصِيرُ

 “Nothing resembles Allah in any way whatsoever, and Allah is attributed with Hearing and Sight. Mental Proof-Allah hears all of the hearable things without the need of an ear or any other instrument. Allah’s attribute of Hearing is not like the hearing of the creation. Our hearing depends on an organ (ear) and sound resonation.

Speech (al-Kalam) : It is obligatory to believe Allah is attributed with Speech (Kalam). The Kalam of Allah has no beginning and is an everlasting attribute with which Allah orders, forbids, and informs. It is not a letter nor a sound nor a language. The Qur’an and the other revealed Books are expressions of the eternal Kalam of the Self of Allah.

Allah has the attribute of Speech (al-Kalam). Surat an-Nisa’, ayah 164:

 وَكَلَّمَ اللّهُ مُوسَى تَكْلِيمًا

 “Allah spoke to Musa with His Speech (Kalam).”  Mental Proof-The Speech of Allah is not like the speech of the creations. The Speech of Allah is not a sound or a letter or a language. It does not depend on organs (lips, teeth and tongue) and it does not resonate in the ear. The Speech of Allah does not start and stop. Like all of the Attributes of Allah, it has no beginning and no end.

Life (al-Hayah): It is obligatory to believe Allah is attributed with Life. The Life of Allah also has no beginning and no end. The Life of Allah is not like our life. Our life is a combination of body and soul; however, the Life of Allah is not.

Allah has the Attribute of Life (al-Hayah). Suratul-Baqarah, ayah 255:

اللّهُ لاَ إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ الْحَيُّ الْقَيُّومُ

 “No one is God except Allah, the One who is attributed with Life and is not in need of anything.” Mental Proof-Allah has the attribute of Life, but His life is not like the life of the creations. The creations are alive with flesh, blood and souls. The creations occupy the six directions, exist in places, and need sustenance. Allah is greatly clear from the attributes of the creations. The one who possesses the attributes of the creations is susceptible to the same weaknesses that the creations are susceptible to. This weakness does not befit Allah, ta^ala.

Knowledge (al-^Ilm): It is obligatory to believe Allah is attributed with Knowledge. The knowledge of Allah has no beginning and no end. This is an attribute of His Self that does not increase, decrease or develop. Allah knows eternally about His Self, attributes, and what He creates. Nothing is absent from His Knowledge.

Allah has the attribute of Knowledge (al-^Ilm). Surat al-‘Anfal, ayah 75:

إِنَّ اللّهَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ

 “Allah has the perfect knowledge of everything.” Mental proof-Allah has the attribute of knowledge, but His knowledge is not like the knowledge of the creations. The Knowledge of Allah does not increase or decrease. If we say that there is something that Allah does not know about yet, this is attributing ignorance to Allah, and ignorance does not befit Allah. Allah’s Knowledge is perfect, without a beginning or an end.

Will (al-‘Iradah): It is obligatory to believe Allah is attributed with Will. The Will of Allah has no beginning and no end, by His will Allah specifies that which is intellectually possible with certain attributes rather than others.

Allah has the attribute of Will (al-Iradah). Suratat-Takwir, ayah 29:

وَمَا تَشَاؤُونَ إِلَّا أَن يَشَاء اللَّهُ رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ

“You do not will anything except by the Will of Allah, the Lord of the Worlds.” Mental Proof-Everything that Allah Willed in eternity for it to exist must come into existence at the time which Allah Willed for it to exist. Nothing will exist unless Allah willed for it to exist.

Power (al-Qudrah):  It is obligatory to believe Allah is attributed with Power.

Allah’s Power has no beginning and no end, by His Power Allah brings into existence that which is intellectually possible to exist or annihilates it after its existence.

Allah has the attribute of Power (al-Qudrah). Suratal-Baqarah, ayah 109:

إِنَّ اللّهَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

 “Allah has the perfect Power over all things.” Mental Proof-Allah has power over all things. He is not powerless over anything. To be powerless against a creation would mean that Allah had a weakness, and weakness does not befit Allah.

Allah does not need anything 
(al-Qiyamubin-Nafs). Surat al-^Imran, ayah 97:

فَإِنَّ الله غَنِيٌّ عَنِ الْعَالَمِينَ

 “Allah does not need any of the worlds.” Mental Proof-Allah does not need anything, and everything needs Him. Weakness and need are attributes of the creations, and not an attribute of the creator.

Non-neediness of others (al-Qiyamu bin-Nafs): Allah does not need anything.

attributes-of-allah-1

*al-Qadim as a Name of Allah

In his famous treatise on the Sunni creed, Imam al-Tahawi (d.321AH)uses the word ‘al-Qadim’ to refer to Allah, meaning pre-existing or without beginning. This has attracted criticism by some contemporaries who deem such wording as baseless, with some even calling it a bid’a.Such a rash claim against as great a figure as al-Tahawi is harsh, considering the following:

In al-Hakim’s al-Mustadrak ‘ala al-Sahihayn we find al-Qadim listed as one of the Names of Allah (volume 1, page 239, hadith #42 in the 2014 Dar al-Ta’sil edition).
Now then, all the narrators in this chain are used by al-Bukhari and Muslim, except for ‘Abd al-‘Aziz b. Husayn al-Turjuman, who is considered weak by al-Bukhari, Muslim, Yahya b. Ma’in, and Ibn ‘Adi.

Another narration is found in Sunan Abi Dawud (hadith #466 in Shu’ayb al-Arna’ut’s edition) whereby Allah’s Authoratative Power(Sultanih) is described as al-Qadim. Bear in mind that Allah’s Attributes are inseperable from His Essence.

 

In summary, condemning al-Tahawi, one of the great hadith scholars, for using a word to describe Allah that was in currency among hadith narrators, in light of the above, long before theologians exerted their influence on the sciences, is a harsh stance to take. Rather than deeming it a baseless innovation, the best stance would be that it is at least based on a weak hadith and can be used to describe one of Allah’s attributes

al-Aqidah al-Sanusiyya

attributes-of-allah-99-names

Hearing Seeing Hand:Here

ADHM

 

source

Advertisements

Comments are closed.

Up ↑

%d bloggers like this: