Origin of At-Tahiyyatu (Tashahhud)

Origin of At-Tahiyyatu (Tashahhud).jpg

Did Tashahhud Originated During the Mi‘raj?

Quote:

” The origin of the tashahhud and that it happened during the ascent of our Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) to heaven (the Mi‘raaj) is something for which there is no basis in Islam.

The scholars of the Standing Committee were asked:

 Is the tashahhud that we recite in the prayer what the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said when he prostrated at Sidrat al-Muntaha during the Mi‘raj?

They replied: It was narrated that Ibn Mas‘ood (may Allah be pleased with him) said:

“The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) taught me the Tashahhud, holding my hand between his hands, just as he would teach me a Surah from the Quran:

‘At-tahiyyatu Lillahi wa’s-salawatu wa’t-tayyibat, as-salamu ‘alayka ayyuha’n-Nabiyyu wa rahmat-Allahi wa barakatuhu. As-salamu ‘alayna wa ‘ala ‘ibad-Illah is-saliheen. Ash-hadu an la ilaha ill-Allah wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan ‘abduhu wa rasooluhu (All compliments, prayers and pure words are due to Allah. Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings. Peace be upon us, and on the righteous slaves of Allah. I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger).’

This was narrated by the jama‘ah.

According to another version, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “When one of you sits during the prayer, let him say: al-tahiyyatu Lillahi…” … and when he came to the words, “wa ‘ala ‘ibad-Illah al-saaliheen”, he said: “If you do that, you will have greeted with salam every righteous slave of Allah in heaven and on earth.” And at the end he said: “Then let him choose whatever he wants to ask for.” Agreed upon.

Ahmad narrated from Abu ‘Ubaydah, from his father ‘Abd-Allah ibn Mas‘ood (may Allah be pleased with him) that he said: The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) taught him the tashahhud and instructed him to teach it to the people: “Al-tahiyyatu Lillahi…” and he quoted it.

Al-Tirmidhi said:

The hadeeth (narration) of Ibn Mas‘ood  (may Allah be pleased with him) is the soundest hadeeth about the tashahhud, and is to be acted upon according to most of the scholars among the Sahabah (Companions) and Tabi‘een (Successors). Abu Bakr al-Bazzar said: It is the soundest hadeeth about the tashahhud. And he said: It was narrated via twenty-odd hadeeths. Among those who were certain about that was al-Baghawi in Sharh al-Sunnah. End quote.

Thus you will know that this format is the soundest that has been proven from the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).

*With regard to whether the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) recited the tashahhud when he was prostrating at Sidrat al-Muntaha on the night of the Mi‘raj,we do not know of any basis for saying that he prostrated in that place on the night of the Mi‘raj. 

Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn Baz, Shaykh ‘Abd al-Razzaq ‘Afeefi, Shaykh ‘Abd-Allah ibn Ghadyan, Shaykh ‘Abd-Allah ibn Qa‘ood. [Fatawa al-Lajnah al-Daimah, 7/6,7] [End quote.]

Quote:

Anwar Shāh al-Kashmīrī (Deobandi), in his al-ʿArf al-Shadhī:

وذكر بعض الأحناف قال رسول الله – ﷺ – في ليلة الإسراء : «التحيات لله» إلخ ، قال الله تعالى : السلام عليك أيها النبي» إلخ ، قال رسول الله – ﷺ -: «السلام علينا وعلى عباد: الله» إلخ ، ولكني لم أجد سند هذه الرواية ، وذكره في الروض الأنف .

And some Ḥanafīs mentioned…” then quoted the report; he continues:  “However, I did not find a chain to this narration, and [Imām al-Suhaylī] mentioned it in al-Raw al-Unuf.”

[Al-ʿArf al-Shadhī under ḥadīth (289). Note: Some of the scholars named in the previous passages were not of a anafī background.]

Mulla Ali Qāri (ra) the author of “Mirqāt-ul-Mafātīh”, the commentary on “Mishkāt-ul-Masābīh” explains the origin of Tashahhud as follows:

قَالَ ابْنُ الْمَلَكِ: رُوِيَ: أَنَّهُ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لَمَّا عُرِجَ بِهِ أَثْنَى عَلَى اللَّهِ تَعَالَى بِهَذِهِ الْكَلِمَاتِ فَقَالَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى: «السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ، فَقَالَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ: السَّلَامُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ، فَقَالَ جِبْرِيلُ: أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ، وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ»

Ibn Al-Malak (RA) says: It has been narrated when the ProphetSallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam was taken up (on the occasion of Mi’raj), he praised Allah Ta’ala with the following words:

التَّحِيَّاتُ لِلَّهِ وَالصَّلَوَاتُ وَالطَّيِّبَاتُ

Allah (SWT) replied:

 السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ

Then the Prophet Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam said:

السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ

Then Jibreel (AS) said: [1]

أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ، وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ

Yusuf Binnori refers to this incident in “Ma’ārif As-Sunan” as follows:[2]

واما قوله السلام عليك أيها النبي ورحمة الله وبركاته فهي ثلاثة بمقابلة الثلاثة التي اثني بها النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم علي ربه ليلة الاسراء

As for his saying: ‘Peace be unto you, O Prophet, the mercy of Allah and His blessings (السلام عليك أيها النبي ورحمة الله وبركاته),” these are three in exchange for the three with which the Prophet Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam praised his Lord on the Night of Isrā (Mi’raj).”

Shaykh Ahmad Al-Tahtāwi also mentions in “Hāshiyah Al-Tahtāwi ‘Alā Marāqi Al-Fallāh”:

إذا قعد أحدكم في الصلاة فليقل التحيات لله والصلوات والطيبات… وهي الصادرة منه ليلة الإسراء

“When one of you sits in Salah, he should say: التحيات لله والصلوات والطيبات… This (Tashahhud) originated from him (i.e. the Prophet Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) on the Night of Isrā‘. [3]

[1]  [مرقاة المفاتيح، كتاب الصلاة، باب التشهد، ج٢، ص٧٣٢، دار الفكر]

[2]  واما قوله السلام عليك أيها النبي ورحمة الله وبركاته فهي ثلاثة بمقابلة الثلاثة التي اثني بها النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم علي ربه ليلة الاسراء الخ

[معارف السنن، باب ما جاء في التشهد، ج٣، ص٨٥، سعيد]

عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، قَالَ: كُنَّا إِذَا كُنَّا مَعَ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فِي الصَّلاَةِ، قُلْنَا: السَّلاَمُ عَلَى اللَّهِ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ، السَّلاَمُ عَلَى فُلاَنٍ وَفُلاَنٍ، فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: ” لاَ تَقُولُوا السَّلاَمُ عَلَى اللَّهِ، فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ السَّلاَمُ، وَلَكِنْ قُولُوا: التَّحِيَّاتُ لِلَّهِ وَالصَّلَوَاتُ وَالطَّيِّبَاتُ، السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ، السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ، فَإِنَّكُمْ إِذَا قُلْتُمْ أَصَابَ كُلَّ عَبْدٍ فِي السَّمَاءِ أَوْ بَيْنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالأَرْضِ، أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ، وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ، ثُمَّ يَتَخَيَّرُ مِنَ الدُّعَاءِ أَعْجَبَهُ إِلَيْهِ، فَيَدْعُو

[صحيح البخاري، كتاب الاذان، باب ما يتخير من الدعاء بعد التثهد، ج١، ص١٦٧، دار طوق النجاة]

[سنن النسائي، كتاب السهو، باب تخيير الدعاء بعد الصلاة، ج٣، ص٥٠، مكتب المطبوعات الاسلامية]

[إعلاء السنن، كتاب الصلاة، باب التشهد ووجوبه، ج٣، ص١١٤، ادارة القرآن كراتشي]

[3]  إذا قعد أحدكم في الصلاة فليقل “التحيات لله والصلوات والطيبات”… جمع تحية من حيا فلان فلانا إذا دعا له عند ملاقاته كقولهم حياك الله أي أبقاك والمراد هنا أعز الألفاظ التي تدل على الملك والعظمة وكل عبادة قولية لله تعالى والمراد بالصلوات هنا العبادات البدنية والطيبات العبادات المالية لله تعالى وهي الصادرة منه ليلة الإسراء فلما قال ذلك النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بإلهام من الله سبحانه رد الله عليه وحياه بقوله “السلام عليك أيها النبي ورحمة الله وبركاته” فقابل التحيات بالسلام الذي هو تحية الإسلام وقابل الصلوات بالرحمة التي هي بمعناهاوقابل الطيبات بالبركات المناسبة للمال لكونها النمو والكثرة فلما أفاض الله سبحانه وتعالى على النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بالثلاثة مقابل الثلاثة والنبي أكرم خلق الله وأجودهم عطف بإحسانه من ذلك الفيض لإخوانه الأنبياء والملائكة وصالحي المؤمنين من الإنس والجن فقال: “السلام علينا وعلى عباد الله الصالحين” فعمهم به كما قال صلى الله عليه وسلم: “إنكم إذا قلتموها أصابت كل عبد صالح في السماء والأرض” وليس أشرف من العبودية في صفات المخلوقين هي الرضا بما يفعل الرب والعبادة ما يرضيه والعبودية أقوى من العبادة لبقائها في العقبى بخلاف العبادة والصالح القائم بحقوق الله تعالى وحقوق العباد فلما أن قال ذلك صلى الله عليه وسلم إحسانا منه شهد أهل الملكوت الأعلى والسماوات وجبريل بوحي وإلهام بأن قال كل منهم “أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأشهد أن محمدا عبده ورسوله” أي أعلم وأبين وجمع بين أشرف أسمائه وبين أشرف وصف للمخلوق وأرقى وصف ملتزم للنبوة لمقام الجمع

قوله: “لمقام الجمع” أي لأن المقام للجمع فكما جمع في التحيات الخ وفي السلام عليك الخ بين ثلاث كذلك جمع له هنا بين ثلاث أشرف الأسماء وهو محمد وأشرف صفات الإنسان وهو العبودية وأشرف وصف مستلزم للنبوة وهو الرسالة

[حاشية الطحطاوي علي مراقي الفلاح، كتاب الصلاة، فصل في كيفية تركيب افعال الصلاة، ج١، ص٣٨٧، مكتبة الاسد]

Also cited by Shah Abdul Haq Dehlvi (ra)  in Madaarij-un-Nubawwat:

Faqih Abul Layth has cited it with an incomplete chain in Tambihul Ghafilin, pg.396

‘Allamah ‘Ayni has mentioned that Imam Farwadi has reported it in his book: ‘Thawabul; ‘ibadat‘ (See  Al-Binayah, vol.2 pg.308)

The shortest version is that of ʿAbd al-Laīf Ibn al-Malak, also known asIbn Firishtah, in his Mabāriq al-Azhār.

This is the same text quoted by Mullā ʿAlī al-Qārī in his Mirqāt al-Mafātī.

روي : أنه ﷺ لما عرج به أثنى على الله تعالى بهذه الكلمات ، فقال الله تعالى : «السلام عليك أيها النبي ورحمة الله وبركاته» ، فقال عليه السلام : «السلام علينا وعلى عباد الله الصالحين» ، فقال جبريل : «أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله ، وأشهد أن محمدا عبده ورسوله» .

It has been narrated that when he (s) was raised above [for the Miʿrāj], he praised Allāh Most High with these words [i.e. al-Taḥiyyāt], whereupon Allāh Most High remarked: ‘Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and Allāh’s Mercy and His Blessings.’ He [i.e. the Prophet](s) responded: ‘Peace be upon us and Allāh’s righteous servants.’ Thereafter,Jibrīl said: ‘I testify that there is no deity but Allāh, and I testify that Muḥammad is His slave and messenger.’” [  Mabāriq al-Azhār 1/244 and Mirqāt al-Mafātīḥ under ḥadīth (909).]

This has also been quoted by Imām al-Qurubī in his Tafsīr from IbnʿAbbās with only a partial chain. Preceding the incident is a short academic discussion regarding whether the incident is related to the relevant verses or not.

He states:

روي عن الحسن ومجاهد والضحاك : أن هذه الآية كانت في قصة المعراج ، وهكذا روي في بعض الروايات عن ابن عباس ، وقال بعضهم : جميع القرآن نزل به جبريل عليه السلام على محمد ﷺ إلا هذه الآية فإن النبي ﷺ : هو الذي سمع ليلة المعراج، وقال بعضهم : لم يكن ذلك في قصة المعراج ، لأن ليلة المعراج كانت بمكة وهذه السورة كلها مدنية ، فأما من قال : إنها كانت ليلة المعراج قال : لما صعد النبي ﷺ وبلغ في السموات في مكان مرتفع ومعه جبريل حتى جاوز سدرة المنتهى فقال له جبريل : «إني لم أجاوز هذا الموضع ولم يؤمر بالمجاوزة أحد هذا الموضع غيرك» ، فجاوز النبي ﷺ حتى بلغ الموضع الذي شاء الله ، فأشار إليه جبريل بأن «سلم على ربك» ، فقال النبي ﷺ : «التحيات لله والصلوات والطيبات» . قال الله تعالى : «السلام عليك أيها النبي ورحمة الله وبركاته» ، فأراد النبي ﷺ أن يكون لأمته حظ في السلام فقال : «السلام علينا وعلى عباد الله الصالحين» ، فقال جبريل وأهل السموات كلهم : «أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأشهد أن محمدا عبده ورسوله» .

It is narrated from al-asan, Mujāhid and al-Dahhak that this āyah was in the story of Miʿrāj.

Likewise has been said in some narrations from Ibn ʿAbbās.

Some maintain that Jibrīl descended with the whole Qur’ān upon Muhammad(s) except for this āyah, because the Prophet(s) was the one who heard on the night of Miʿrāj.

* Others maintain it did not occur in the incident of Miʿrāj becausethe night of Miʿrāj had occurred in [the era of] Makkah; and this Sūrah, in its totality, was revealed in Madīnah.

Consequently, those who say it was in the night of Miʿrāj also say when the Prophet (s) ascended and reached the heavens in a lofty place, Jibrīl was with him until he [i.e. the Prophet(s)] had gone beyond the Sidrat al-Muntahā. Jibrīl said to him: ‘I cannot go beyond this juncture; none have been permitted to pass this point other than you.’ The Prophet (s)passed through until he reached the place which Allāh had willed. Jibrīl indicated to him [i.e. the Prophet(s)] to convey Salām to his Lord, so theProphet(s) said: ‘All verbal, physical and monetary deeds are for Allāh…’” The rest is as mentioned above. [Tafsīr al-Qurubī under [al-Baqarah: 2/285-286].

Imām al-Qurtubī seems to have taken it almost verbatim from Abū ’l-Layth al-Samarqandī, who mentioned it in his Bahr al-ʿUlūm ( 1/189 (d. 373 AH).

It has also been mentioned in a later work known as Ruh al-Bayān of Abū ’l-Fidā al-Khalwatī (5/21 (d. 1127 AH)

The text is as follows:

وروى- أنه عليه السلام عرج من السماء السابعة إلى السدرة على جناح جبريل ، ثم منها على الرفرف ، وهو بساط عظيم . قال الشيخ عبد الوهاب الشعراني : هو نظير المحفة عندنا . ونادى جبريل من خلفه : يا محمد ، إن الله يثنى عليك فاسمع وأطع ولا يهولنك كلامه ، فبدأ عليه السلام بالثناء ، وهو قوله : «التحيات لله والصلوات والطيبات» أي : العبادات القولية والبدنية والمالية ، فقال تعالى : «السلام عليك أيها النبي ورحمة الله وبركاته» . فعمم عليه السلام سلام الحق ، فقال : «السلام علينا وعلى عباد الله الصالحين» ، فقال جبريل : «أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأشهد أن محمدا عبده ورسوله» .

Aside from a few details, the incident is the same as translated above.

 

The Tashahhud: A Greeting Beyond Place in Our Prayers 
Shaykh Faraz Rabbani:

What does At-Tahiyyat mean?

Abdullah bin Saleh Al-Ijli, said he wanted to find out what it meantand went to a scholar named Al-Kisaai.
Who said it means blessings.

He wasn’t completely satisfied with the answer and so he went to another great scholar Muhammed Ibn-ul-Hassan Al Shaibani, he asked the same to him. He told that this is a word that we use to worship Allah.

Abdullah bin Saleh was still not satisfied with the answers then went toMuhammad Ibn-Idrees As-Shafi’ee

Imam Sahai’ee said: why do ask them you have to ask a poet they are not poet…

Imam Shafi’ee explained that when you enter into the court of a king, you offer royal compliments. This is the protocol and the compliments are exclusively for Allah.” ]

* Al-Bukhari (349) and Muslim (162) narrated from Anas ibn Malik (may Allah be pleased with him) the famous hadeeth of the Isra’ (Prophet’s Night Journey) in which it is reported that the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “Then Allah revealed what He revealed to me, and enjoined fifty prayers on me every day and night. I came back down to Moosa(blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) and he said: What did your Lord enjoin upon your ummah? I said: Fifty prayers. He said: Go back to your Lord and ask Him to reduce itI kept going back and forth between my Lord, may He be blessed and exalted, and Moosa(peace be upon him), until He said: ‘O Muhammad, they are five prayers each day and night, for every prayer there will be a tenfold (reward), and that is fifty prayers.”

THE HADITH OF ISRA’ AND MI’RAJ:

COMMEMORATING THE PROPHET’S RAPTURE AND ASCENSION TO HIS LORD

Shaykh As-Sayyid Muhammad ibn `Alawi ibn `Abbas al-Maliki al-Hasani

[…]

Then the Prophet(s) saw his Lord, the Glorious, the Exalted, and he fell prostrate, and at that time his Lord spoke to him and said:“O Muhammad!” He(s) replied:”At your service, O Lord!”Allah(SWT) said:”Ask!(sal).”

The Prophet(s) said:

You have taken to Yourself Ibrahim as a friend, and You have given him an immense kingdom. You have spoken to Musa directly, and have givenDawud an immense kingdom and softened iron and subjected the mountains to him. You have given Sulayman an immense kingdom, and subjected the jinn and men and devils to him, as well as the winds, and You have given him a kingdom the like no one may have after him. You have taught `Isa the Torah and the Evangel, and made him heal those born blind and the lepers, and raise up the dead with Your permission, and You have protected him and his mother from the cursed devil so that the devil had no path by which to harm them!

Allah said: “And I have taken you to Myself as My beloved.”

The narrator said: It is written in the Torah: habibullah “Allah’s Beloved.”

Allah continued:

And I have sent you for all people without exception,  a bearer of glad tidings and a warner;  and I have expanded your breast for you  and relieved you of your burden  and exalted your name;  and I am not mentioned except you are mentioned with Me;  and I have made your Community the best Community ever brought out for the benefit of mankind; and I have made your Community a mean and a middle; and I have made your Community in truth the first  and the last of all Communities; and I have made public address (al-khutba) impermissible for your Community unless they first witness that you are My servant and Messenger;  and I have placed certain people in your Community with Evangels for hearts (i.e. repositories of Allah’s Book);  and I have made you the first Prophet created and the last one sent and the first one heard in My court;  and I have given you Seven of the Oft-Repeated which I gave to no other Prophet before you (i.e. Surat al-Fatiha);  and I have given you the last verses of Surat al-Baqarawhich constitute a treasure from under My Throne which I gave to no other Prophet before you;  and I have given you the Kawthar; and I have given youeight arrows (i.e. shares in good fortune): Islam, Emigration (hijra), Jihad, Charity (sadaqa), Fasting Ramadan, Ordering Good, and Forbidding Evil; and the day I created the heavens and the earth I made obligatory upon you and upon your Community fifty prayers: therefore establish them, you and your Community.”

(al-Shami added:)

Abu Hurayra said: Allah’s Messenger said: My Lord has preferred me over everyone else (faddalani rabbi):

He has sent me as a mercy to the worlds and to all people without exception,  a bearer of glad tidings and a warner;  He has thrown terror into the hearts of my enemies at a distance of a month’s travel;  He has made spoils of war lawful for me while they were not lawful for anyone before me;  the entire earth has been made a ritually pure place of prostration for me;  I was given the words that open, those that close, and those that are comprehensive in meaning (i.e. I was given the apex of eloquence);  My Community was shown to me and there is none of the followers and the followed but he is known to me;  I saw that they would come to a people that wear hair-covered sandals;  I saw that they would come to a people of large faces and small eyes as if they had been pierced with a needle;  nothing of what they would face in the future has been kept hidden from me; and I have been ordered to perform fifty prayers daily. And he has been given three particular merits: He is the master of Messengers (sayyid al-mursalin), the Leader of the Godwary (imam al-muttaqin), and the Chief of those with signs of light on their faces and limbs (qa’id al-ghurr al-muhajjalin). (End of al-Shami’s addition.)

All greetings, blessings and good acts are from You, my Lord.

Greetings to you, O Prophet, and the mercy and blessings of Allah.

Peace be unto us, and unto the righteous servants of Allah.

I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allah.

And I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and messenger.





(Edited by ADHM)

source

Read The Book Of Universe

READ THE BOOK OF THE UNIVERSE!

The first Qur’anic verse is that which was revealed to us at Hira:

iq’ra bi-is’mi rabbika alladhī khalaq

“Read in and with the Name of your Lord, Who has created.” (96:1)

Of course, this is the greatest learning.

What are you to read? You are read the Divine Majesty. You are to read the workings of Divine Power. You are to read the Divine inscriptions in this universe. Allah Almighty has helped us greatly to read these.  In other words, Allah Almighty created this realm as a mirror [of the Divine attributes]. What great need human beings have for contemplation! How much are they to draw near to Allah Almighty through this contemplation and become fine servants and feel their helplessness. This is the kind of learning centre that Allah has established, this learning centre of the universe. It has been prepared for the human being.

Human beings and animals have been coming here since the creation of Prophet Adam, upon him be peace. Animals were created for human beings too, as were trees and vegetation. They will continue until the Last Hour. Their function will end at the end of the world. All of them will be destroyed at once and a new world will begin anew.

And so, the universe, from the micro to macro, from the smallest entity the atom, to galaxies, from the smallest creature to the most gigantic, in the sea, on land and in the air, all of these need to reflect to us the Divine Majesty of Allah Almighty.

Allah Almighty grants bits of knowledge: Physics, chemistry, and the like… Why does He do so? Why does He grant these to us and not to other creatures? From here we are to remember the Divine Majesty and the workings of Divine Power and exclaim, “Oh my Lord!”

How does a human being come into existence from a fertilised ovum? How do various devices come into being within them? How do these devices work? How many branches do these split up into in a lifetime? It is still not possible to gain insight into them.

This goes to show Allah Almighty – from the product to the maker, the cause to the Creator of causes, from the art to the artist. Of course, if one has a heart. If there is a heart, it is to develop. If there is such a heart, the eyes will then see.

iq’ra bi-is’mi rabbika alladhī khalaq

“Read in and with the Name of your Lord, Who has created.” (96:1) This verse will become manifest.

Such an eye is important. This eye is an eye connected to the heart. The eye here is an instrument, a pair of glasses. Both Abu Bakr, may Allah be well pleased with him, and Abu Jahl saw the Messenger of Allah, as did Abu Lahab. When they looked at Allah’s Messenger, everyone saw the feelings they held within their own selves. Abu Bakr saw his love and was struck with awe and admiration. Abu Lahab and Abu Jahl saw their own rancour and darkness.

So, Allah Almighty wants us to behold this realm of the universe with precisely such a heart, with a heart that deepens in such a way and proclaim, “Oh, my Lord!”

This is why a friend of Allah says:

“For the knowing, this realm is a journey of wonder (that is, the beholding of the workings of Divine power), while for the foolish – excuse my saying so – it is food and appetence.”

Sa’di Shirazi says:

“A single leaf on a tree is a record of experiential knowledge of Allah. For the foolish – pardon my saying so – all trees put together do not even amount to a single leaf.” They see in the same way other creatures do.

And so, this, or our heart’s advancement [depends on] our taking lesson from the universe. This is what began within the Prophet’s Companions. A huge tree emerging from a tiny seed, an animal emerging from a tiny egg, a human being emerging from an almost nonexisting entity… gave rise to a deep contemplation within the Companions. And a perception of the [final] stopping place of this realm being the grave developed within them.

The Qur’an is our book of instruction. It is a book of guidance for the pious and God-conscious. A miracle of speech. A universe that speaks and advises – the Qur’an. The universe is the actual, while the Qur’an the literal. In other words, the universe guides us in silence while the Qur’an guides us out loud. Two forms of guidance.

As for the Messenger of Allah: A great, endless blessing from Allah Almighty.

laqad manna l-lah

“Assuredly, Allah has done the believers a great kindness…” (3:164)

The greatest blessing is the Messenger of Allah. The summit of 124,000 Prophets. Every Prophet came to his people, while the Messenger of Allah, raḥmatan lil’ʿālamīn, a mercy for all the worlds, came to all humanity until the Last Day and for all time.

He was sent to all people, from the lowest echelon to the highest. The Messenger of Allah is a miracle of Allah Almighty within the human being. The universe is an operative miracle. The Qur’an is a miracle of speech. The Messenger of Allah is a miracle in the human being. There is no such second person, no second Prophet.

This means that Allah Almighty wants for us to know him closely. There are so many Qur’anic verses which describe the Messenger of Allah very closely.

Now, we cannot fill the ocean into this glass. It would overflow. Allah Almighty holds him up as an example for us in the Qur’an’s verses. That he is al-uswa al-hasana, the Fine Exemplar. For whom? A person can be an example for a peoples, an example for [members of] a profession. He, however, is an example for all humanity.

Thus, it is declared, “Surely Allah and His angels bless the Prophet…” (33:56)

Allah Almighty bestowed him as raḥmatan lil’ʿālamīn, a “Mercy to all the Worlds.” The angels beseech Allah for him.

“…invoke the blessings of Allah on him, and pray to Allah to bestow His peace on him, greeting him with the best greeting.” (33:56)

Ibn ‘Abbas, the Messenger’s paternal cousin, saw the Messenger of Allah as a child. He says that we need to engage in much contemplation especially in this month of Rabi’ al-Awwal. He states:

“Allah has never created any soul that is dearer to Him than Muhammad. For I have never heard Allah swear by the life of anyone else.”

Only upon the Messenger of Allah He declares in the Qur’anic chapter al-Hijr: “laʿamruka“. (15:72) He declares, “By your life (O Muhammad),” He swears upon his life.

Every phase of life… This was why the Companions were in a [constant] state of vigilance. They would tread the path upon which he walked. They would rest beneath the tree under which he rested. They would go and lean on the rock on which he leant during the Farewell Pilgrimage.

That is to say, by striving to emulate him in all their daily dealings and affairs, in their worship, etc., they sought to emulate him in all their other states.

wal-ʿaṣr (103:1). Allah Almighty swears by his Era.

He swears by his city. (See al-Balad, 1)

In the Qur’anic Chapter al-Yasin, Allah swears by his Prophethood. (See 36:3)

Again, Allah Almighty ascribes great value and esteem to everything gaining merit with respect to affinity with him, to the degree of this affinity.

He renders his lineage the most superior. He sanctifies his Noble Household. He demands that his family and relatives be loved.

He honours his tribe.

He renders his wives the Mothers of the Believers.

He renders Hamza the master of martyrs.

He renders the Noble Companions, people of piety and righteousness. He chose them from all humanity to be the Prophet’s Companions. And He presents them as an example to all humanity in the 100th verse of the Qur’anic Chapter at-Taubah.

He renders the era in which he lived the best era of the Children of Adam, the Era of Bliss.

He renders the Ka’ba the direction of his worship.

Allah Almighty takes upon Himself the protection of His Book, the protection of the Qur’an. In the Qur’anic verse that was recited, it is declared: “(O Prophet!) Move not your tongue to hasten it (for safekeeping in your heart). Surely it is for Us to collect it (in your heart) and enable you to recite it (by heart).” (See, 75:16-17)

He renders Madina Munawwara, the Illuminated City, a sacred precinct.

If we were to greet someone in our prayers, this would annul our prayer. But Allah Almighty makes us offer greetings to him in our prayers:

‘at-tahiyyatu li-llahi wa-s- salawatu wa-t-tayyibatu…

(All verbal worship such as glorification, praise and thanks and salutations, in addition to physical and monetary deeds and acts of worship belong to Allah.)

as-salamu ‘alayka ayyuha-n-nabiyyu wa rahmatu-llahi wa barakatuh

(Peace be upon you, O Messenger, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings!)

Then, from the Messenger of Allah upon us and upon the righteous servants of Allah… In other words, a prayer goes to those righteous servants from every single prayer that is offered.

In short, He bestowed much much more upon His Messenger. Allah Almighty even made his devil Muslim.

This goes to show that however much merit we can acquire in closeness to him, this is the extent to which:

lā khawfun ‘alayhim walā hum yaḥzanūn

“…[we] will have no fear, nor will [we] grieve.” (10:62) We would have entered into this sphere.

As long as we can become closely acquainted with the Messenger of Allah… And so the Companions came to know him closely and were stricken with awe.

What does Allah Almighty demand of us?

illā man atā l-laha biqalbin salīm

“…But only he (will prosper) who comes before Allah with a sound heart.” (26:89)

He demands from us a refined heart. Just as we are born pure, we are to become purified through our acts of worship, remembrance and the like. With a refined heart, a heart that has become purified Allah Almighty invites us to His presence, to His Paradise.

A heart that has attained rest. He declares: “O you soul at rest!” (89:27)  There is no prior direct address by Allah Almighty to His servant in the Qur’an.

“Return to your Lord, well-pleased (with Him and His treatment of you), and well-pleasing to Him.” (89:28)

They are to be pleased with Allah. No saying, “Oh!” “Ugh!” or “Why!” They are to obey. And Allah will be pleased with them.

“And enter my Paradise!” (89:30) He declares.

Thus:

fa-alhamahā fujūrahā wataqwāhā qad aflaḥa man zakkāhā

“And Who has inspired it [the human selfhood] with the conscience of what is wrong and bad for it, and what is right and good for it – He is indeed prosperous who has grown it in purity.”(91:8-9)

Wickedness: everything pulling a person away from Allah is to be eliminated.

Piety and righteousness makes one a traveller to Paradise, while wickedness renders the person a traveller to the Fire.

This means that however much we can distance ourselves from the Fire is how close we become to Paradise. Now, this water is clear. It is water that has been prepared to drink. If a small amount of impurity falls into this water – these impurities are sins – the taste of this water would be entirely lost.

And so, the human being is told:

“Do not forget two things!” The Qur’anic instruction. The Messenger of Allah is instructed:

alā bidhik’ri l-lahi taṭma-innu l-qulūb

“Be aware that it is in the remembrance and of and whole-hearted devotion to Allah that hearts find rest and contentment.”(13:28)

“We are not to forget Allah Almighty.”  We need to be aware that we are under Divine watch.

The second: “Not to forget mortality.”

kullu man ‘alayhā fān

“All that is on the earth will perish.” (55:26)

kullu nafsin dhāiqatu l-mawt

“Every soul is bound to taste death…” (29:57)

The human being is not to forget death.

They are not to forget Allah Almighty; they are not to forget death. The task will then become easier.

yaḥdharu l-ākhirata: They will, “fear the Hereafter.” (See 39:9)

This is because – all praise and thanks be to Allah! – we came [to this world] as Muslims, through the manifestation of the Divine Name (Al-)Hadi‘: The All-Guiding. But Allah Almighty does not give us a guarantee that we will leave as Muslims.

He declares: “…and see that you do not die save as Muslims (submitted to Him exclusively).”

“O you who believe! Keep from disobedience to God in reverent piety, with all the reverence that is due to Him, illā wa-antum mus’limūn, and see that you do not die save as Muslims (submitted to Him exclusively).”(3:102) This is what He declares.

Similarly, in another verse, in the chapter entitled Muhammad:

“…If you help Allah(’s cause by striving in His cause), He will help you and make your feet firm (so that you are steadfast in His cause and ultimately victorious).”(47:7)

This means that we are constantly upon slippery ground, until the last breath. Everything will end with the last breath in any case. There is no possibility of making amends in the grave or in the Hereafter.

And, “Forget two things!” it is stated. Allah Almighty is All-Merciful – Infinite Mercy. The Messenger of Allah is pitying, compassionate and merciful. The servant, too, is to be merciful and increase their acts of righteousness and good works.

“Forget all the good and charity you do for others.” Do not over estimate them. Do not let these give you a sense of self-conceit and arrogance.

Secondly: “Forget the wrong done to you by others.” Forgive them. Allah Almighty asks:

“…Do you not wish that Allah should forgive you?” (24:22)

Again in the Qur’anic chapter al-Ta-Ha, Allah Almighty declares:

“…So keep from disobedience to Allah in reverence for Him and piety, and set things right among yourselves to allow no discord; and obey Allah and His Messenger if you are true believers…” (8:1)

There is no such thing as, “I’m right,” or “They’re wrong.” Allah has made us brothers and sisters.

Again, in another verse, at the end of the chapter al-Fath, it is declared: “…and [the believers] are compassionate among themselves.” (See 48:29)

So, a believer has to forgive their Muslim brother or sister. They are not to say, “They did this or that to me.” And Allah will forgive them too, insha’Allah.

 

Osman Nuri Topbas

Islam is against racism and bigotry

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By Abu Amina Elias

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

Islam is against all forms of racism and bigotry. Racism is the belief that one race is superior to another, or one color of skin is superior to another, or the people of one country are superior to another. Such beliefs are the characteristic of pre-Islamic ignorance (jahiliyyah). In Islam, we believe all races are equal to Allah and the only characteristic that makes someone superior to another is righteousness (taqwa).

Allah has dignified all of the children of Adam, all human beings and all races in the world.

Allah said:

وَلَقَدْ كَرَّمْنَا بَنِي آدَمَ وَحَمَلْنَاهُمْ فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ وَرَزَقْنَاهُم مِّنَ الطَّيِّبَاتِ وَفَضَّلْنَاهُمْ عَلَىٰ كَثِيرٍ مِّمَّنْ خَلَقْنَا تَفْضِيلًا

We have certainly honored the children of Adam and carried them on the land and sea and provided for them of the good things and preferred them over much of what We have created, with definite preference.

Surat Al-Isra 17:70

Allah created different races and tribes so that different peoples would recognize each other and learn from each other, not so that the races would fight each other.

Allah said:

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقْنَاكُم مِّن ذَكَرٍ وَأُنثَىٰ وَجَعَلْنَاكُمْ شُعُوبًا وَقَبَائِلَ لِتَعَارَفُوا إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِندَ اللَّهِ أَتْقَاكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ خَبِيرٌ

O people, We have created you male and female and made you nations and tribes that you may know one another. Verily, the most noble of you to Allah is the most righteous of you. Verily, Allah is knowing and aware.

Surat Al-Hujurat 49:13

In fact, Allah created different skin colors and languages as a sign of His creative power.

Allah said:

وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ خَلْقُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَاخْتِلَافُ أَلْسِنَتِكُمْ وَأَلْوَانِكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِّلْعَالِمِينَ

Among His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth and the diversity of your languages and your colors. Verily, in that are signs for people of knowledge.

Surat Ar-Rum 30:22

Abu Musa reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَعَالَى خَلَقَ آدَمَ مِنْ قَبْضَةٍ قَبَضَهَا مِنْ جَمِيعِ الْأَرْضِ فَجَاءَ بَنُو آدَمَ عَلَى قَدْرِ الْأَرْضِ فَجَاءَ مِنْهُمْ الْأَحْمَرُ وَالْأَبْيَضُ وَالْأَسْوَدُ وَبَيْنَ ذَلِكَ وَالسَّهْلُ وَالْحَزْنُ وَالْخَبِيثُ وَالطَّيِّبُ

Verily, Allah the Exalted created Adam from a handful which He took from the earth, so the children of Adam come in accordance with the earth. Some come with red skin, white skin, or black skin and whatever is in between: thin, thick, dirty, and clean.

Source: Sunan At-Tirmidhi 2955, Grade: Sahih

Righteousness is the only quality that makes someone virtuous in the sight of Allah, not race or skin color or lineage or country. This teaching against racism was delivered by the Prophet during his farewell sermon, indicating how important he believed it was to the message of Islam.

Abu Nadrah reported: I heard the farewell sermon of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, and he said:

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ أَلَا إِنَّ رَبَّكُمْ وَاحِدٌ وَإِنَّ أَبَاكُمْ وَاحِدٌ أَلَا لَا فَضْلَ لِعَرَبِيٍّ عَلَى أَعْجَمِيٍّ وَلَا لِعَجَمِيٍّ عَلَى عَرَبِيٍّ وَلَا لِأَحْمَرَ عَلَى أَسْوَدَ وَلَا أَسْوَدَ عَلَى أَحْمَرَ إِلَّا بِالتَّقْوَى أَبَلَّغْتُ

O people, your Lord is one and your father Adam is one. There is no virtue of an Arab over a foreigner nor a foreigner over an Arab, and neither white skin over black skin nor black skin over white skin, except by righteousness. Have I not delivered the message?

Source: Musnad Ahmad 22978, Grade: Sahih

Uqbah ibn Amir reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

لَيْسَ لأَحَدٍ عَلَى أَحَدٍ فَضْلٌ إِلا بِالدِّينِ أَوْ عَمَلٍ صَالِحٍ حَسْبُ الرَّجُلِ أَنْ يَكُونَ فَاحِشًا بَذِيًّا بَخِيلا جَبَانًا

No one is better than anyone else except by religion or good deeds. It is sufficient evil for a man to be profane, vulgar, greedy, or cowardly.

Source: Shu’b al-Iman 4767, Grade: Sahih

Abu Dharr reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

انْظُرْ فَإِنَّكَ لَيْسَ بِخَيْرٍ مِنْ أَحْمَرَ وَلَا أَسْوَدَ إِلَّا أَنْ تَفْضُلَهُ بِتَقْوَى

Behold! Verily, there is no good in red skin or black skin, but rather only by virtue of righteousness.

Source: Musnad Ahmad 20885, Grade: Hasan

Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said:

فَيَقُولُ الرَّجُلُ لِلرَّجُلِ أَنَا أَكْرَمُ مِنْكَ ، فَلَيْسَ أَحَدٌ أَكْرَمَ مِنْ أَحَدٍ إِلا بِتَقْوَى اللَّهِ

A man might say to another man that I am more noble than you, yet no one is made noble except by the fear of Allah.

Source: al-Adab al-Mufrad 898, Grade: Sahih

The Prophet would rebuke his companions if they ever denigrated people because of their race.

Abu Umamah reported: Abu Dharr reproached Bilal about his mother, saying, “O son of a black woman!” Bilal went to the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, and he told him what he said. The Prophet became angry and then Abu Dharr came, although he was unaware of what Bilal told him. The Prophet turned away from him and Abu Dharr asked, “O Messenger of Allah, have you turned away because of something you have been told?” The Prophet said:

أَنْتَ الَّذِي تُعَيِّرُ بِلالا بِأُمِّهِ وَالَّذِي أَنْزَلَ الْكِتَابَ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ مَا لأَحَدٍ عَلَيَّ فَضْلٌ إِلا بِعَمَلٍ إِنْ أَنْتُمْ إِلا كَطَفِّ الصَّاعِ

Have you reproached Bilal about his mother? By the one who revealed the Book to Muhammad, none is more virtuous over another except by righteous deeds. You have none but an insignificant amount.

Source: Shu’b al-Iman 4760, Grade: Sahih

Boasting about lineage and ancestors is forbidden in Islam, since all people are descended from Adam and his wife. The only criterion of superiority is faith and righteous deeds.

Abu Huraira reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

 إِنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ أَذْهَبَ عَنْكُمْ عُبِّيَّةَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ وَفَخْرَهَا بِالْآبَاءِ إِنَّمَا هُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ تَقِيٌّ وَفَاجِرٌ شَقِيٌّ النَّاسُ كُلُّهُمْ بَنُو آدَمَ وَآدَمُ خُلِقَ مِنْ تُرَابٍ

Verily, Allah has removed from you the pride of the time of ignorance with its boasting of ancestors. Verily, one is only a righteous believer or a miserable sinner. All of the people are the children of Adam, and Adam was created from dust.

Source: Sunan At-Tirmidhi 3955, Grade: Sahih

In another narration, the Prophet said:

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ أَذْهَبَ عَنْكُمْ عُبِّيَّةَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ وَتَعَاظُمَهَا بِآبَائِهَا فَالنَّاسُ رَجُلَانِ بَرٌّ تَقِيٌّ كَرِيمٌ عَلَى اللَّهِ وَفَاجِرٌ شَقِيٌّ هَيِّنٌ عَلَى اللَّهِ وَالنَّاسُ بَنُو آدَمَ وَخَلَقَ اللَّهُ آدَمَ مِنْ تُرَابٍ قَالَ اللَّهُ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقْنَاكُمْ مِنْ ذَكَرٍ وَأُنْثَى وَجَعَلْنَاكُمْ شُعُوبًا وَقَبَائِلَ لِتَعَارَفُوا إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ أَتْقَاكُمْ

O people, Allah has removed the slogans of ignorance from you and the exaltation of its forefathers. The people are only two kinds: either a righteous, Godfearing believer dignified to Allah, or a wicked, miserable sinner insignificant to Allah. The people are all the children of Adam and Adam was created from dust. Allah said: O people, We have created you male and female and made you into nations and tribes that you may know one another. Verily, the most noble to Allah is the most righteous of you. (49:13)

Source: Sunan At-Tirmidhi 3270, Grade: Sahih

Likewise, tribalism (al-asabiyyah) is forbidden in Islam, which is the fanatical adherence to ethnic loyalty even when it leads to oppression and injustice. The Prophet disavowed himself and Islam from anyone who acts according to the ideologies of tribalism.

Jubair ibn Mut’im reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

لَيْسَ مِنَّا مَنْ دَعَا إِلَى عَصَبِيَّةٍ وَلَيْسَ مِنَّا مَنْ قَاتَلَ عَلَى عَصَبِيَّةٍ وَلَيْسَ مِنَّا مَنْ مَاتَ عَلَى عَصَبِيَّةٍ

He is not one of us who calls to tribalism. He is not one of us who fights for the sake of tribalism. He is not one of us who dies following the way of tribalism.

Source: Sunan Abu Dawud 5102, Grade: Hasan

Malcolm X, also known as Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz, was a famous African-American activist who struggled with the problem of race in America. At first, he embraced a path of extremism in his confrontation with white supremacy, but his heart changed when he performed his Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca. In Mecca, he saw white, black, red, and all kinds of people joining the Hajj as one brotherhood. He wrote back to his friends in Harlem, saying:

America needs to understand Islam, because this is the one religion that erases from its society the race problem. Throughout my travels in the Muslim world, I have met, talked to, and even eaten with people who in America would have been considered white, but the white attitude was removed from their minds by the religion of Islam. I have never before seen sincere and true brotherhood practiced by all colors together, irrespective of their color.

During the past eleven days here in the Muslim world, I have eaten from the same plate, drunk from the same glass, and slept on the same rug, while praying to the same God, with fellow Muslims, whose eyes were the bluest of blue, whose hair was the blondest of blond, and whose skin was the whitest of white. And in the words and in the deeds of the white Muslims, I felt the same sincerity that I felt among the black African Muslims of Nigeria, Sudan and Ghana.

We were truly all the same, because their belief in one God had removed the white from their minds, the white from their behavior, and the white from their attitude. I could see from this, that perhaps if white Americans could accept the Oneness of God, then perhaps, too, they could accept in reality the Oneness of Man, and cease to measure and hinder and harm others in terms of their differences in color.

Source: Malcolm X’s Letter from Mecca

Muslims must spread the message of Islam to the peoples of the earth who still suffer from racism and tribal bigotry. Even among some Muslims, the scourge of racism exists and causes harm among communities. The only way to completely eradicate racism is to embrace the oneness of Allah (tawheed) and to accept its logical conclusion, the oneness of humanity.

Success comes from Allah, and Allah knows best.

Race, discrimination and bigotry in Islam

In today’s world, racism has integrated itself into the core fabric of social structures that govern our modern day societies. Do you know the place of racism in Islam?

In today’s world, racism has integrated itself into the core fabric of social structures that govern our modern day societies. It has manifested into one of the most prevalent diseases plaguing human communities today. Not one day goes by where you pick up a newspaper or put on a news channel or tune into the radio, and you are not bombarded with news of racial discrimination, violence, war and terror. One cannot help but wonder about the triggers of such tragic instances prevailing across the globe.

Contrary to popular Western belief, Islam strictly rejects the whole notion of racism and condemns it to its very core. The religion of Islam stands on a solid foundation based on the concept of mutual love and brotherhood, which in essence, out rightly rejects discrimination based on color, race, ethnicity, blood, power or any man-made distinctions, for that matter.

All were created equal in the eyes of Allah (SWT). Islam out rightly rejects favoritism be it in terms of monetary privileges or biological differences. The only distinguishing factors among individuals is their level of faith and piety.

“O mankind, We have created you from a male and a female and have made you into nations and tribes for you to know one another. Truly, the noblest of you with God is the most pious. Truly, God is All-Knowing, All-Aware” (Quran, 49:13)

Equality and justice in Islam leaves no room for injustice and racism to exist. During the Prophet’s (PBUH) time, the problem of racism was purposefully eliminated so the concept of superiority was only valid when it came to a person’s level of fear of Allah (SWT) and his righteousness. Islam places great emphasis on the concept of brotherhood among humans, irrespective of their characteristics and position. Prophet Muhammad’s (PBUH) highlighted this matter in his last sermon as well, where he said:

“O people! Your God is one and your forefather (Adam) is one. An Arab is not better than a non-Arab and a non-Arab is not better than an Arab, and a red (i.e. white tinged with red) person is not better than a black person and a black person is not better than a red person, except in piety” (Musnad Ahmad, 22978)

The religion of Islam is not confined to any nation, race or ethnicity; it is for the entire human race. It is universal. It brings together the entire human race under one umbrella of equality and unites them in their ultimate purpose of worshipping Allah (SWT) and Allah (SWT) alone. This equality is also practically demonstrated through Islamic practices of worship like Hajj, the annual pilgrimage, where people from all around the globe gather in Makkah with the sole purpose of worshipping Allah (SWT). And they do so, wearing the same piece of cloth, carrying out the same acts of worship and speaking the same words- to further emphasize the fact that at the end of the day, everyone is equal in the eyes of Allah (SWT).

Another point of equality visible in the Islamic realm is the rules and laws governing humans. The laws of prohibition and allowance are directed towards each and every living individual, it is not limited to any group or characteristic. What is lawful for one person is also lawful for the other, and whatever is prohibited for one individual is prohibited for the other as well. All rules and their consequences are applicable upon every human depending on what each individual deserves based on their deeds.

This speaks volumes about the anti-racism sentiment prevalent in the religion that is so dear to us. In truth, racism and any other kinds of man-made discrimination categories, are completely alien to the essence of Islam and what it means to be a true Muslim. Therefore, it is our duty to instill these fundamental beliefs in the coming generations and curb the negativity that is emanated through the practice of racism. No one is higher in rank in front of Allah (SWT) except according to our level of faith and devotion to Allah (SWT).

If you want to raise your rank in comparison to your fellow believers, increase your piety and work towards building a stronger bond with Allah (SWT) instead of running after temporary materialistic gains and monitory benefits. Instead of hatred and injustice, practice love and equality, for Allah (SWT) loves those who love His creation. Condemn racism and promote acceptance and tolerance, for it is our duty as Muslims to play our part, however little, in making this world a better one.

 

by Amna Anwaar Monday March 13, 2017

Why do they wear Taweez (Amulets) ?

why-do-they-wear-taweez-amulets

Quote:

Shaykh Sulaymaan ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhaab said:

Know that the scholars among the Sahaabah and Taabi’een andthose who came after them differed as to whether it is permissible to hang up amulets which only contain words from the Qur’aan or names and attributes of Allaah. 

One group said that this is permissible. This was the view of ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘Aas and others. I say, this appears to be the view of Ibn al-Qayyim. 

Shaykh Haafiz Hukami said:

If they – i.e., amulets – contain clearly-written Qur’aanic verses or saheeh ahaadeeth, there was some dispute among the salaf – the Sahaabah, the Taabi’een and those who followed them – as to whether they are permissible.

Some of them – i.e., some of the Salaf – said that this was permissible. This was narrated from ‘Aaishah (may Allaah be pleased with her), Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn ‘Ali, and others among the salaf.

Some of them said that this was not allowed; they regarded it is makrooh and not permitted. They include ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Akeem, ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Amr, ‘Uqbah ibn ‘Aamir, and ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Mas’ood and his companions such as al-Aswad and ‘Alqamah, and those who came after them such as Ibraaheem al-Nakha’i and others – may Allaah have mercy on them.

Quote:

” The view that amulets are not allowed even if they contain words from the Qur’aan is the view of our shaykhs:

The scholars of the Standing Committee said:

” The scholars are agreed that it is haraam to wear amulets if they contain anything other than Qur’aan, but they differed concerning those which do contain Qur’aan.

Some of them said that wearing these is permitted, and others said that it is not permitted. 

The view that it is not permitted is more likely to be correct because of the general meaning of the ahaadeeth, and in order to prevent means of shirk.”

 ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn Baaz,  ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Ghadyaan,  ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Qa’ood. (Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah, 1/212)

 al-Albani said:

” This misguidance is still widespread among the Bedouin, fellahin (peasants) and some of the city-dwellers. Examples include the pearls which some drivers put in their cars, hanging them from the rear-view mirror. Some of them hang an old shoe on the front or back of the car; some hang a horse-shoe on the front of their house or shop. All of that is to ward off the evil eye, or so they claim.
And there are other things which are widespread because of ignorance of Tawheed and the things which nullify it such as actions of shirk and idolatry which the Messengers were only sent and the Books were only revealed to put an end to. It is to Allaah that we complain of the ignorance of Muslims nowadays, and their being far away from their religion. (Silsilat al-Ahaadeeth al-Saheehah, 1/890, 492)

Ibn Tayimyyah

19/64-65

وَيَجُوزُ أَنْ يَكْتُبَ لِلْمُصَابِ وَغَيْرِهِ مِنْ الْمَرْضَى شَيْئًا مِنْ كِتَابِ اللَّهِ وَذِكْرُهُ بِالْمِدَادِ الْمُبَاحِ وَيُغْسَلُ وَيُسْقَى كَمَا نَصَّ عَلَى ذَلِكَ أَحْمَد وَغَيْرُهُ قَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ أَحْمَد: قَرَأْت عَلَى أَبِي ثَنَا يَعْلَى بْنُ عُبَيْدٍ؛ ثَنَا سُفْيَانُ؛ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي لَيْلَى عَنْ الْحَكَمِ؛ عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ جُبَيْرٍ؛ عَنْ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ: إذَا عَسِرَ عَلَى الْمَرْأَةِ وِلَادَتُهَا فَلْيَكْتُبْ: بِسْمِ اللَّهِ لَا إلَهَ إلَّا اللَّهُ الْحَلِيمُ الْكَرِيمُ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظِيمِ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ {كَأَنَّهُمْ يَوْمَ يَرَوْنَهَا لَمْ يَلْبَثُوا إلَّا عَشِيَّةً أَوْ ضُحَاهَا} {كَأَنَّهُمْ يَوْمَ يَرَوْنَ مَا يُوعَدُونَ لَمْ يَلْبَثُوا إلَّا سَاعَةً مِنْ نَهَارٍ بَلَاغٌ فَهَلْ يُهْلَكُ إلَّا الْقَوْمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ} . قَالَ أَبِي: ثَنَا أَسْوَدُ بْنُ عَامِرٍ بِإِسْنَادِهِ بِمَعْنَاهُ وَقَالَ: يُكْتَبُ فِي إنَاءٍ نَظِيفٍ فَيُسْقَى قَالَ أَبِي: وَزَادَ فِيهِ وَكِيعٌ فَتُسْقَى وَيُنْضَحُ مَا دُونَ سُرَّتِهَا قَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ: رَأَيْت أَبِي يَكْتُبُ لِلْمَرْأَةِ فِي جَامٍ أَوْ شَيْءٍ نَظِيفٍ. وَقَالَ أَبُو عَمْرٍو مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ أَحْمَد بْنِ حَمْدَانَ الحيري: أَنَا الْحَسَنُ بْنُ سُفْيَانَ النسوي؛ حَدَّثَنِي عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ أَحْمَد بْنِ شبوية؛ ثنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ

الْحَسَنِ بْنِ شَقِيقٍ؛ ثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ الْمُبَارَكِ؛ عَنْ سُفْيَانَ؛ عَنْ ابْنِ أَبِي لَيْلَى؛ عَنْ الْحَكَمِ؛ عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ جُبَيْرٍ؛ عَنْ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ: إذَا عَسِرَ عَلَى الْمَرْأَةِ وِلَادُهَا فَلْيَكْتُبْ: بِسْمِ اللَّهِ لَا إلَهَ إلَّا اللَّهُ الْعَلِيُّ الْعَظِيمُ لَا إلَهَ إلَّا اللَّهُ الْحَلِيمُ الْكَرِيمُ؛ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ وَتَعَالَى رَبُّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظِيمِ؛ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ {كَأَنَّهُمْ يَوْمَ يَرَوْنَهَا لَمْ يَلْبَثُوا إلَّا عَشِيَّةً أَوْ ضُحَاهَا} {كَأَنَّهُمْ يَوْمَ يَرَوْنَ مَا يُوعَدُونَ لَمْ يَلْبَثُوا إلَّا سَاعَةً مِنْ نَهَارٍ بَلَاغٌ فَهَلْ يُهْلَكُ إلَّا الْقَوْمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ} . قَالَ عَلِيٌّ: يُكْتَبُ فِي كاغدة فَيُعَلَّقُ عَلَى عَضُدِ الْمَرْأَةِ قَالَ عَلِيٌّ: وَقَدْ جَرَّبْنَاهُ فَلَمْ نَرَ شَيْئًا أَعْجَبَ مِنْهُ فَإِذَا وَضَعَتْ تُحِلُّهُ سَرِيعًا ثُمَّ تَجْعَلُهُ فِي خِرْقَةٍ أَوْ تُحْرِقُهُ.

Ibn Taymiyyah said in his Fatawa (19:64): It is permissible to write for the one afflicted [with the evil eye] and others of the sick something from the Book of Allah and His dhikr with permissible ink, and wash [the ink off the paper] and give it to drink, as Ahmad and others have explicated.

Abdullah ibn Ahmad said: ‘I read unto my father: Ya’la ibn ‘Ubayd narrated to us: Sufyan narrated to us: from Muhammad ibn Abi Layla: from al-Hakam: from Sa’id ibn Jubayr: from Ibn ‘Abbas (Allah be pleased with him): he said: When labour becomes difficult for a woman one should write: ‘In Allah’s name, there is no god but Allah, the Clement the Honourable. Glory to Allah Lord of the Magnificent Throne. All praise to Allah Lord of the Worlds. On the day when they behold it, it will be as if they had but tarried for an evening or the morn thereof (79:46), On the day when they behold what they were promised, it will be as if they had but tarried for an hour of a day, A clear message. Shall any be destroyed save evil-living folk? (46:35)’

My father said: ‘Aswad ibn ‘Amir narrated to us with his chain [of narration] the same thing and he said: one writes [the ta’widh] in a clean vessel and gives it to drink’. My father said: ‘and Waki’added in his narration: she is given to drink [from it] and it is sprinkled below her navel. ‘Abdullah said: I saw my father writing [a ta’widh] for a woman on a cup or something clean.’”

Ibn Taymiyyah then transmitted this narration of Ibn ‘Abbasthrough another route, and he said at the end of it: “‘Ali (meaning Ibn al-Hasan, the nephew of the narrator of this narration) said: ‘one writes [the ta’widh] on paper and ties it around the upper arm of a woman’. ‘Ali said: ‘indeed we tried this and did not see anything more remarkable than it. When she delivered, it was quickly disposed of, by subsequently shredding it or burning it.’”

Ibn Taymiyya writes:

“It is permissible to [to recite du’a’s and then] blow upon the sick in Islam, but the words must be from the Qur’an or ahadith. If the words are not, then it is not permissible” [Ibn Taymiyya, At-Tawassul, Chapter on Blowing onto the Sick]

Ibn Taymiyyah in Majmu’ Fataawa, Vol. 19, page 63/64, states:

“It is permissible to write from Kitaabullah (Qur’aan ) and His Thikr (Dhzikar) with permissible ink something for the benefit of one stricken (with a problem) and for sick persons, and to wash (what has been written from the Qur’aan) and to give it to them (the stricken and the sick) to drink as Imaam Ahmad and others have explicitly said.

Abdullah, the son of (Imaam) Ahmad said: ‘I recited to my father(Imaam Ahmad) —the chain of the Hadith – that Ibn Abbaas (radhiyallahu anhu) said: ‘When birth pangs become difficult for a woman, then write: (The relevant Qur’aanic verses)

My father (Imaam Ahmad) said: ‘Aswad Bin Aamir narrated with his Chain of Narration similarly, and he said: ‘It should be written in a clean basin and given to drink.’ My father (Imaam Ahmad) said: Waqee’ added: ‘It should be given to her to drink and (the balance of the water) should be sprinkled (on the area) below her navel.’ Abdullah (Imaam Ahmad’s son) said: ‘I saw my father write (these Qur’aanic verses and the other athkaar) on a clean basin for a woman (in labour).”

Imam Ibn Kathir:

”Whilst doing ghusl they saw Ibn taymiyyah had a taweez (thread) around his neck, he had nits so the taweez was to protect him from them (lice). That taweez was then auctioned, it was sold for 150 dirhams” [al Bidaya wal Nihaya]

”It is said he had lice so he was wearing a mercury thread around his neck. That was then auctioned, it was sold for 150 dirhams.” [Al-‘Uqood ad-Durriyah min Manaaqib… Ibn Taymiyyah]

The original narration can also be found in the Muannaf Ibn Abī Shaybah (‘Awwāmah #23974) with the same chain as mentioned by Imam Ahmad above

حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُسْهِرٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي لَيْلَى، عَنِ الْحَكَمِ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ جُبَيْرٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، قَالَ: إِذَا عَسِرَ عَلَى الْمَرْأَةِ وَلَدُهَا، فَيَكْتُبُ هَاتَيْنِ الْآيَتَيْنِ وَالْكَلِمَاتِ فِي صَحْفَةٍ ثُمَّ تُغْسَلُ فَتُسْقَى مِنْهَا: «بِسْمِ اللَّهِ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْحَلِيمُ الْكَرِيمُ، سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ رَبِّ السَّمَوَاتِ السَّبْعِ وَرَبِّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظِيمِ» {كَأَنَّهُمْ يَوْمَ يَرَوْنَهَا لَمْ يَلْبَثُوا إِلَّا عَشِيَّةً أَوْ ضُحَاهَا} [النازعات: 46] {كَأَنَّهُمْ يَوْمَ يَرَوْنَ مَا يُوعَدُونَ لَمْ يَلْبَثُوا إِلَّا سَاعَةً مِنْ نَهَارٍ، بَلَاغٌ فَهَلْ يُهْلَكُ إِلَّا الْقَوْمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ} [الأحقاف: 35]

As for the different riwāyāt, then these are mentioned in various hanbalī texts, Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah gathers many of them in hisZād al-Ma’ād (Beirut: Mu’assasat al-Risālah 4/326-7)

كِتَابٌ لِلْحُمَّى: قَالَ المروزي: بَلَغَ أبا عبد الله أَنِّي حُمِمْتُ، فَكَتَبَ لِي مِنَ الْحُمَّى رُقْعَةً فِيهَا: بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ، بِسْمِ اللَّهِ، وَبِاللَّهِ، مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ، {قُلْنَا يَا نَارُ كُونِي بَرْدًا وَسَلَامًا عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ} [الأنبياء: 69] ، {وَأَرَادُوا بِهِ كَيْدًا فَجَعَلْنَاهُمُ الْأَخْسَرِينَ} [الأنبياء: 70] ، اللَّهُمَّ رَبَّ جَبْرَائِيلَ، وَمِيكَائِيلَ، وَإِسْرَافِيلَ، اشْفِ صَاحِبَ هَذَا الْكِتَابِ بِحَوْلِكَ وَقُوَّتِكَ وَجَبَرُوتِكَ، إِلَهَ الْحَقِّ آمِينَ.

قَالَ المروزي: وَقَرَأَ عَلَى أبي عبد الله – وَأَنَا أَسْمَعُ – أبو المنذر عمرو بن مجمع، حَدَّثَنَا يونس بن حبان، قَالَ: سَأَلْتُ أبا جعفر محمد بن علي أَنْ أُعَلِّقَ التَّعْوِيذَ، فَقَالَ: إِنْ كَانَ مِنْ كِتَابِ اللَّهِ أَوْ كَلَامٍ عَنْ نَبِيِّ اللَّهِ فَعَلِّقْهُ وَاسْتَشْفِ بِهِ مَا اسْتَطَعْتَ. قُلْتُ: أَكْتُبُ هَذِهِ مِنْ حُمَّى الرِّبْعِ: بِاسْمِ اللَّهِ، وَبِاللَّهِ، وَمُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ إِلَى آخِرِهِ؟ قَالَ: أَيْ نَعَمْ.

وَذَكَرَ أحمد عَنْ عائشة رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهَا، وَغَيْرِهَا أَنَّهُمْ سَهَّلُوا فِي ذَلِكَ.

قَالَ حرب: وَلَمْ يُشَدِّدْ فِيهِ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ حَنْبَلٍ، قَالَ أحمد: وَكَانَ ابْنُ مَسْعُودٍ يَكْرَهُهُ كَرَاهَةً شَدِيدَةً جِدًّا. وَقَالَ أحمد وَقَدْ سُئِلَ عَنِ التَّمَائِمِ تُعَلَّقُ بَعْدَ نُزُولِ الْبَلَاءِ؟ قَالَ: أَرْجُو أَنْ لَا يَكُونَ بِهِ بَأْسٌ.

قَالَ الخلال: وَحَدَّثَنَا عبد الله بن أحمد، قَالَ: رَأَيْتُ أَبِي يَكْتُبُ التَّعْوِيذَ لِلَّذِي يُفْزَعُ، وَلِلْحُمَّى بَعْدَ وُقُوعِ الْبَلَاءِ.

[كِتَابٌ لِعُسْرِ الْوِلَادَةِ]

ِ: قَالَ الخلال: حَدَّثَنِي عبد الله بن أحمد: قَالَ رَأَيْتُ أَبِي يَكْتُبُ لِلْمَرْأَةِ إِذَا عَسُرَ عَلَيْهَا وِلَادَتُهَا فِي جَامٍ أَبْيَضَ، أَوْ شَيْءٍ نَظِيفٍ، يَكْتُبُ حَدِيثَ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ: لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ الْحَلِيمُ الْكَرِيمُ، سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظِيمِ، الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ: {كَأَنَّهُمْ يَوْمَ يَرَوْنَ مَا يُوعَدُونَ لَمْ يَلْبَثُوا إِلَّا سَاعَةً مِنْ نَهَارٍ بَلَاغٌ} [الأحقاف: 35] [الْأَحْقَافِ: 35] ، {كَأَنَّهُمْ يَوْمَ يَرَوْنَهَا لَمْ يَلْبَثُوا إِلَّا عَشِيَّةً أَوْ ضُحَاهَا} [النازعات: 46] [النَّازِعَاتِ: 46] .

قَالَ الخلال: أَنْبَأَنَا أبو بكر المروزي، أَنَّ أبا عبد الله جَاءَهُ رَجُلٌ فَقَالَ: يَا أبا عبد الله! تَكْتُبُ لِامْرَأَةٍ قَدْ عَسُرَ عَلَيْهَا وَلَدُهَا مُنْذُ يَوْمَيْنِ؟ فَقَالَ: قُلْ لَهُ: يَجِيءُ بِجَامٍ

وَاسِعٍ، وَزَعْفَرَانٍ، وَرَأَيْتُهُ يَكْتُبُ لِغَيْرِ وَاحِدٍ، وَيَذْكُرُ عَنْ عكرمة، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ: ( «مَرَّ عِيسَى صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَى نَبِيِّنَا وَعَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ عَلَى بَقَرَةٍ قَدِ اعْتَرَضَ وَلَدُهَا فِي بَطْنِهَا، فَقَالَتْ: يَا كَلِمَةَ اللَّهِ! ادْعُ اللَّهَ لِي أَنْ يُخَلِّصَنِي مِمَّا أَنَا فِيهِ، فَقَالَ: يَا خَالِقَ النَّفْسِ مِنَ النَّفْسِ، وَيَا مُخَلِّصَ النَّفْسِ مِنَ النَّفْسِ، وَيَا مُخْرِجَ النَّفْسِ مِنَ النَّفْسِ، خَلِّصْهَا. قَالَ: فَرَمَتْ بِوَلَدِهَا، فَإِذَا هِيَ قَائِمَةٌ تَشُمُّهُ» ) . قَالَ: فَإِذَا عَسُرَ عَلَى الْمَرْأَةِ وَلَدُهَا، فَاكْتُبْهُ لَهَا. وَكُلُّ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِنَ الرُّقَى، فَإِنَّ كِتَابَتَهُ نَافِعَةٌ.

وَرَخَّصَ جَمَاعَةٌ مِنَ السَّلَفِ فِي كِتَابَةِ بَعْضِ الْقُرْآنِ وَشُرْبِهِ، وَجَعْلِ ذَلِكَ مِنَ الشِّفَاءِ الَّذِي جَعَلَ اللَّهُ فِيهِ.

كِتَابٌ آخَرُ لِذَلِكَ: يُكْتَبُ فِي إِنَاءٍ نَظِيفٍ: {إِذَا السَّمَاءُ انْشَقَّتْ – وَأَذِنَتْ لِرَبِّهَا وَحُقَّتْ – وَإِذَا الْأَرْضُ مُدَّتْ – وَأَلْقَتْ مَا فِيهَا وَتَخَلَّتْ} [الانشقاق: 1 – 4] [الِانْشِقَاقِ: 1-4] وَتَشْرَبُ مِنْهُ الْحَامِلُ، وَيُرَشُّ عَلَى بَطْنِهَا.

Ibn al-Qayyim actually goes on to narrate from Ibn Taymiyyah the following (when a person has a nose bleed 4:328)

كَانَ شَيْخُ الْإِسْلَامِ ابْنُ تَيْمِيَّةَ رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ يَكْتُبُ عَلَى جَبْهَتِهِ: {وَقِيلَ يَاأَرْضُ ابْلَعِي مَاءَكِ وَيَا سَمَاءُ أَقْلِعِي وَغِيضَ الْمَاءُ وَقُضِيَ الْأَمْرُ} [هود: 44] [هُودٍ: 44] . وَسَمِعْتُهُ يَقُولُ: كَتَبْتُهَا لِغَيْرِ وَاحِدٍ فَبَرَأَ، فَقَالَ: وَلَا يَجُوزُ كِتَابَتُهَا بِدَمِ الرَّاعِفِ، كَمَا يَفْعَلُهُ الْجُهَّالُ، فَإِنَّ الدَّمَ نَجِسٌ، فَلَا يَجُوزُ أَنْ يُكْتَبَ بِهِ كَلَامُ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى.

Ibn Al Qayyim has mentioned that it is permissible for one to write verses and duas with saffron in a clean plate, or clean paper, then it should be washed for the patient to drink the washing. (Zaadul-Ma’ad).

Shaikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz, while referring to this says ‘there is no harm in that’ [Fatawa Islamiyah vol.1 pg. 50]

Ibn Qayyim al Jawziyyah says:

Some of our rightly guided ancestors stated that there is no harm if some ayat (Verse) from the Qur’an were written in ink and then washed with water and that the sick person drinks that water. Mujahid issues a statement to that effect and so did Abu Qilabah. It was also reported that Ibn ‘Abbas once commanded that two verses from the Qur’an to be written for a woman who had hard pregnancies and that the verses were then washed with water and she was to drink the water. Also Ayub said, “I saw Abu Qilabah write some Verses from the Qur’an wash it with water and then give the water to a person who was suffering from some type of illness to drink it [Tibb an Nabawi by Ibn Qayyim, Page No. 154, English version]

Ibn Kathir and Qadi Shawkani write:

“Amr ibn Shu’aib (may Allah be pleased with him) said that ‘Rasulu’llah(may Allah bless him and grant him peace) taught my father and grandfather a du’a which we would read before going to sleep, to protect us from fear and anguish.We told our elder children to recite this du’a before going to sleep as well.But for those children who were not yet literate, we would write it and then put it around their necks”
[Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal vol.2;Abu Dawud, in ‘Chapter of Medicine’ [5:67] ;

Tafsir Ibn Kathir, under Sura al-Mu’minun, verse 97; Qadi Shawkani, Fath al-Qadir, under Sura al-Mu’minun, verse 97 ]

Qadi Shawkani writes: “If the Qur’an’s du’a’s are recited and blown on the sick, they will be cured.When the non-believers recite the Qur’an, their blasphemic disease will be cured” [Tafsir Fath al-Qadir, under Sura Bani Isra’il, verse 82]

Allama Sa’idi writes:

Imam an-Nawawi in Sharh Muslim states: ‘There are two types of ahadith concerning blowing. [reciting a du’a and then blowing onto a person]. One of the types is transmitted in Bukhari: ‘There will be people who will enter Paradise without any questioning, who have never been blown upon.’ Imam Muslim has also recorded a hadith in support of those who do not ask to be blown upon.
Imam Bukhari in the chapter on Tibb [Medicine] has written du’as that our Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) recited when doing damm [reciting a du’a and then blowing onto a person].
Imam Muslim states in ‘The Chapter on Virtues of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace)’ that: “When our Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) was ill, the Angel Jibrilcame to him and performed the blowing.” The above types of ahadith apparently seem to contradict each other but in reality there is no contradiction.

“The former type of hadith refers to the prohibition of having read something that is not from the Qur’an and Sunna [i.e.something that has pictures, diagrams or words not from the Qur’an or Sunna] and then blow upon someone. The latter types of ahadith which permit damm refer to those kalimat [words or verses] which have been taught by the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace)”

[Allama Sa’idi, Sharh Sahih Muslim, Chapter of Tibb]

 

Following explanation by Imam al-Qurtubi (rah) on the topic taken from his Tafsir:

Qur’an States: And We are sending down in the Qur’an what is healing and mercy for the believers. And it only increases the wrongdoers in loss.  [Quran 17:82]

In explanation of the verse Imam Qurtubi (rah) writes.

وننزل من القرآن شيئاً شفاء؛ ما فيه كله شفاء.

الثانية: اختلف العلماء في كونه شفاء على قولين: أحدهما ـ أنه شفاء للقلوب بزوال الجهل عنها وإزالة الرّيب، ولكشف غطاء القلب من مرض الجهل لفهم المعجزات والأمور الدالة على الله تعالى. الثاني ـ شفاء من الأمراض الظاهرة بالرُّقى والتعوّذ ونحوه.

عن أبي سعيد: فأفاق وبرأ. فبعث إلينا بالنُّزل وبعث إلينا بالشاء، فأكلنا الطعام أنا وأصحابي وأبَوْا أن يأكلوا من الغنم، حتى أتينا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فأخبرته الخبر فقال: «وما يدريك أنها رقية» قلت: يا رسول الله، شيء ألقي في رُوِعي. قال: كلوا وأطعمونا من الغنم ”

Translation: It has been said that he who does not seek cure through the Qur’an, Allah does not cure him.

Secondly: The scholars interpret that verse in two ways however: the first is that cure is for the hearts, by the removal of ignorance and doubt which hinder the understanding of miracles and matters pointing to Allah Almighty; the second, that cure is for outward diseases, through the use of healing verses [ruqya] and seeking refuge and the like.

(Bukhari and Muslim relate the hadith of ruqiyya through) Abu Sa`id al-Khudri [‘a Companion healed an Arab from scorpion-bite by reciting al-Fatiha on him seven times, and the Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) later asked him: How did you know it was a ruqya?’].

(Qurtubi then lists instructions for making a kind of ruqya called nushra: various verses are recited over a clean container which is then filled with water; the water is then used for wudu’ by someone who already has a valid wudu’, and who also soaks his head and limbs with it but does not use it for ghusl or istinja’; it may be drunk; he then prays two rak`as at the conclusion of which he asks for healing, and so for three days.)

Imam al-Qurtubi wrote in detail about both types of ahadith concerning ta’wiz:

The ta’wiz that are forbidden are those ta’wiz from the Time of Ignorance – ]those which are satanic and contain an element of shirk [mantar, voodoo and magic, etc.]. The ta’wiz, which are permitted are those written with du’as evidently from Qur’an and ahadith only”

[al-Qurtubi, at-Tadhkirat, chapter on ‘Ta’wiz’]

The Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) said: Cure for my Community is in but three verses of Allah’s Book, a mouthful of honey, or cupping.(Tabari) He also said: Ruqya is allowed as long as there is no idolatry [shirk]; and if you can help your brother, help him. Malik ibn Anas said: To hang writings of Allah’s Names upon oneself is permitted for healing and blessing but not for protection against the evil eye.

Abdullah ibn `Amr used to hang a protective invocation taught by the Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) around the necks of his young children. (Abu Dawud and Tirmidhi – hasan)

The Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) and the Companions hated the pagan kind of ruqya or talisman [tamima, qilaada].

 Istishfa’ [seeking blessing] with Qur’an is not shirk, whether hung on oneself or not. The Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) said: Who hangs something (upon oneself), he is left to it for protection. Therefore who hangs Qur’an is certainly taken under Allah’s protection, and He will not leave him to other than Him. Hanging a ruqya is accepted [among the Tabi`in] by: Ibn al-Musayyib, ad-Dahhak, Ja`far as-Sadiq, and Ibn Sirin (End of Qurtubi’s words) [Reference for Above Tafsir of Qurtubi [rah] : al-Jami’ li-ahkam al-Qur’an Volume 013, Page 156-163]

In the Musannaf of Abu Bakr ibn Abi Shayba, the permissibility of hanging a ta`wiz is reported from many of the Companions and early Muslims (Salaf), including:

حدّثنا أبو بكر قال حدثنا عقبة بن خالد عن شعبة عن أبي عصمة قال: سألت سعيد بن المسيب عن التعويذ فقال: لا بأس إذا كان في أديم.

حدّثنا أبو بكر قال حدثنا يحيى بن آدم قال حدثنا حسن عن ليث عن عطاء قال : لا بأس أن يعلق القرءان

Translation: It is narrated that Sa’eed bin Musayb (one of the top ranking Tabi’i) was asked about wearing Amulets, he said: There is “No harm in doing so”

Imam al Ata (rah) the Tabi’i and Faqih of Makkah said: There is no harm in hanging (ayahs of) Quran (around the neck) [Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, Volume No. 5, Page No. 439]

Mujahid, Abd Allah ibn `Amr, Ibn Sirin, `Abayd Allah ibn Abd Allah ibn `Umar, and others (Allah be well pleased with them all) also narrated it [Musannaf, 5.439]

أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ إِذَا فَزِعَ أَحَدُكُمْ فِي النَّوْمِ فَلْيَقُلْ أَعُوذُ بِكَلِمَاتِ اللَّهِ التَّامَّاتِ مِنْ غَضَبِهِ وَعِقَابِهِ وَشَرِّ عِبَادِهِ وَمِنْ هَمَزَاتِ الشَّيَاطِينِ وَأَنْ يَحْضُرُونِ فَإِنَّهَا لَنْ تَضُرَّهُ وَكَانَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عُمَرَ يُلَقِّنُهَا مَنْ بَلَغَ مِنْ وَلَدِهِ وَمَنْ لَمْ يَبْلُغْ مِنْهُمْ كَتَبَهَا فِي صَكٍّ ثُمَّ عَلَّقَهَا فِي عُنُقِهِ

Amr ibn Shu’ayb reported from his father, from his grandfather that Allah’s Messenger (SAW) said, “If any of you gets a nightmare, let him say:

I seek refuge in the perfect words of Allah against His wrath and His punishment and the’ mischief of His slaves and from the temptations of the devils and that which they bring.

Then they will not harm him.” So, Abdullah ibn Amr used to teach this supplication to his grown up children. And, he wrote it down on something and hung it on the neck of those who had not attained puberty.  [Abu Dawud 3893 ,sunan tirmidhi Chapter 99, hadith 3539]

أَبُو دَاوُدَ وَالنَّسَائِيُّ وَالْحَاكِمُ وَقَالَ صَحِيحُ الْإِسْنَادِ

Abu Dawood [rah], Nasai [rah] and Al Hakim [rah] said the Isnad is SAHIH

And

قال ‏ ‏أبو عيسى ‏ ‏هذا ‏ ‏حديث حسن غريب ‏

Imam Tirmidhi after quoting it said: Abu Esa [rah] said the Hadith is Hasan Gharib

Sheikh Abdul Qadir al Jilani (ra) prescribed wearing Amulets

Ghuniya tut Talibeen states: To write an “AMULET (TAWEEZ)” for someone who has fever, and then hanging it around his neck.Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal (ra) said: Once I had fever, and an Amulet (Taweez) was written for me. [Al Ghuniya tut Talibeen, Page No. 51]

In the Musannaf of Abu Bakr ibn Abi Shayba, the permissibility of hanging a ta`wiz is reported from many of the Companions and early Muslims (Salaf), including:

Sa`id ibn al-Musayyib, `Ata’, Mujahid, Abd Allah ibn `Amr, Ibn Sirin, `Abayd Allah ibn Abd Allah ibn `Umar, and others (Allah be well pleased with them all). [Musannaf, 5.439]

As for that which is reported from some, including Ibn Mas`ud (Allah be pleased with him), that hanging ta`wizes is shirk, this is understood to mean those that resemble the one’s used in Jahiliyya, or if used thinking that it is the ta`wiz itself that cures or protects, not Allah, or if it contains impermissible invocations or one’s whose meaning is not known.

Allama Abu Sa`id al-Khadimi in his al-Bariqa al-Mahmudiyya Sharh al-Tariqa al-Muhammadiyya. [4.171-172]

حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ حُجْرٍ، حَدَّثَنَا إِسْمَاعِيلُ بْنُ عَيَّاشٍ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْحَاقَ، عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ شُعَيْبٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ جَدِّهِ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ” إِذَا فَزِعَ أَحَدُكُمْ فِي النَّوْمِ فَلْيَقُلْ أَعُوذُ بِكَلِمَاتِ اللَّهِ التَّامَّةِ مِنْ غَضَبِهِ وَعِقَابِهِ وَشَرِّ عِبَادِهِ وَمِنْ هَمَزَاتِ الشَّيَاطِينِ وَأَنْ يَحْضُرُونِ . فَإِنَّهَا لَنْ تَضُرَّهُ ” . قَالَ وَكَانَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عَمْرٍو يُلَقِّنُهَا مَنْ بَلَغَ مِنْ وَلَدِهِ وَمَنْ لَمْ يَبْلُغْ مِنْهُمْ كَتَبَهَا فِي صَكٍّ ثُمَّ عَلَّقَهَا فِي عُنُقِهِ . قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ غَرِيبٌ

Amr bin Shu’aib narrated from his father, from his grandfather, that the Messenger of Allah said: “When one of you becomes frightened during sleep, then let him say: ‘I seek refuge in Allah’s Perfect Words from His anger, His punishment, and the evil of His creatures, from the whisperings of the Shayatin, and that they should come (A’udhu Bikalimatillahit-Tammati Min Ghadabihi Wa Iqabihi Wa Sharri Ibadih, Wa Min Hamzatish-Shayatini Wa An Yahdurun).’ For verily, they shall not harm him.’”He said: “So Abdullah bin Amr used to teach it to those of his children who attained maturity, and those of them who did not, he would write it and then hang it around his neck.”

Sunan Tirmizi # 3528 (Imam Tirmizi graded it Hasan)

Sunan Abi Dawud # 3893

Musnad Ahmed # 6895 (Shaykh Ahmed Shakir graded it “Sahih”)

Musannaf Ibn Abi Shayba # 3261

Mustadrak Hakim (1/548) [Imam Hakim said “Isnaadu Sahih” ]

Imam Bayhaqi,Kitab al Adab # 993

Imam Nasai , Amal al Yawm wa l Laylah, # 765

Imam Baghawi, Masabih al l Sunnah , (2/216)

Imam Tibrizi,Mishkaat al Masabih ,# 2477

Imam Mundhiri ,At Targheeb wa Tarheeb , # 2384

Imam Mundhiri again in Mukhtasar Sunan Abi Dawud , # 3744

Imam Razi,Tafsir Mafatih al Ghayb ,Surah Muminun,Ayat 97

Imam Nawawi ,Al Adhkar

Imam Alusi , Ruh ul Ma’ani, Under ,Surah Muminun,Ayat 97

Imam Ibn Kathir , Tafseer, ,Surah Muminun,Ayat 97

Imam Dhahabi , Al Tibb al Nabawi, Page :281

Ibn Qayyim , Zaad al Maad

Qadhi Shawkhani, Tafsir, Surah Muminun,Ayat 97

Nawab Siqqiq Hasan khan,Tafsir, Surah Muminun,Ayat 97

Al-Albani In SAHIH Sunan Tirmidhi, # 2793

Imam Ali al Qari writes about the hadith of Amr bin Shu’ayb (Hadith posted):

“This Hadith is the basis for hanging those Tawidh(amulets) which contain the names of Allah ,The glorified and exalted.”

[Mirqat al Mafatih , Volume:5, Page:384 , Dar al Kutub al Ilmiyyah , Beirut 1422 AH/2001CE ]

Imam Nawawi before hadith of Amr bin Shuayb :

وقد يستدل للإباحة بحديث عمرو بن شعيب عن

“One may adduce as evidence for their (amulets) permissibility from the hadith of Amr bin Shu’ayb” [ Imam Nawawi , al Majmu Sharh al Madhdhab, (2/88) , Dar al Fikr , Beirut ]

Abdul Rahman Mubarapuri writes under (sharah of) this hadith {Of Amr bin shuayb}:

قال الشيخ عبد الحق الدهلوي في اللمعات : هذا هو السند في ما يعلق في أعناق الصبيان من التعويذات وفيه كلام ، وأما تعليق الحرز والتمائم مما كان من رسوم الجاهلية فحرام بلا خلاف انتهى“Shaykh Abdul Haq Dehlvi has written in {Ashi’at al Lama’at} that this hadith has the evidence for hanging “Taweedhat” (amulets) in children’s neck. And it is haram by consensus to hang sea shella and stones as was the practice in pre Islamic days”

[ Tuhfatul Ahwadhi, Volume:04 , Page:473 , Dar ul Ihya ut Turath,Beirut,1419 ]

Imam Malik (RA)on Taweedh :

: قال مالك لا بأس بما يعلق على النساء الحيض ، والصبيان من القرآن إذا جعل في كن كقصبة حديد أو جلد يحرز عليه

Imam Malik said : “ There is no harm if something written from Quran is hanged onto menstruating women or children ,provided it is covered with iron or leather

[ Imam Nawawi , , al Majmu Sharh al Madhdhab, (2/88) , Dar al Fikr , Beirut ]

Imam Malik  :وقد قال مالك رحمه الله لا بأس بتعليق الكتب التي فيها أسماء الله عز وجل على أعناق المرضى على وجه التبرك بها إذا لم يرد معلقها بتعليقها مدافعة العين وهذا معناه قبل أن ينزل به شيء من العين ولو نزل به شيء من العين جاز الرقى عند مالك(التمهيد لما في الموطأ من المعاني والأسانيد,)(17/161)

Imam Malik said , there is no blame in hanging written Ruqyas ( i,e amulets) Which contains the names of Allah upon the necks of the sick , to drive the healing blessings contained therein , so long as he does not intend by that to prevent the effects of the evil eye before they fall. If some effects of the evil eye have already befallen one, then it is permissible to employ ruqyas according to Imam Malik, to hang written ones upon oneself. [Ibne abd al barr , At Tamhid, , (17/161),Morocco ]

Saeed bin Musayyib [The Tabayi ]

وسئل سعيد بن المسيب عن الصحف الصغار يكتب فيه القرآن ، فيعلق على النساء والصبيان ؟ فقال : لا بأس بذلك إذا جعل في كير من ورق ، أوحديد ، أو يخرز عليه[شرح السنة ـ للإمام البغوى]12/158-159المكتب الإسلامي – دمشق ـ بيروت ـ 1403هـ – 1983م

Saeed bin Musayyib (RA) was asked concerning putting of Tawidh (amulets) containing verses of Quran around the neck of women and young children.He replied that it is permissible if the Tawidh is contained in leather wrap or some metallic box.

[ Imam Baghawi ,Sharhus Sunnah. 12/158,159, Maktaba al Islami,Beirut 1403 A.H ]

Quote:

” The view that amulets are not allowed even if they contain words from the Qur’aan is the view of our shaykhs”

Great Tabayeen have not only approved the use of Tawidh but have been using them

Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaibah , Kitab al Tibb , Volume :12 , Page : 74 (Dar Qurtuba,Beirut)

حدّثنا أبو بكر قال حدثنا عقبة بن خالد عن شعبة عن أبي عصمة قال: سألت سعيد بن المسيب عن التعويذ فقال: لا بأس إذا كان في أديم.

Abu Ismah said ,I asked Sa’id bin Musayb (one of the top ranking Tabi’i) about wearing Amulets, he said: “There is no harm in when it is covered with leather”

حدّثنا أبو بكر قال حدثنا يحيى بن آدم قال حدثنا حسن عن ليث عن عطاء قال : لا بأس أن يعلق القرءان

Imam al Ata (ra) [the Tabi’i Faqih of Makkah] said: “There is no harm in tying (ayahs of) Quran .”

Ata was asked about a menstruating woman who had a Tawidh on her.HE said ,”If it is on leather she should take it off and if it is in silver box,if she wishes she may put it on and if she wishes she need not put it on

Mujahid would write Tawidh for people and hang it on them.

Abu Ja’far was asked concerning writing something from Qur’an and hanging it or tying it , he did not see anything wrong in it.

Ibn Sirin did not see anything wrong in writing from the Qur’an and tying it.

Ayyub said that he saw Ubaydullah ibn Abdullah ibn Umar was tying a thread in his shoulder .

Abu Jafar was asked concerning hanging Tawidh in children’s neck and he allowed it.

Jubayr said there is no harm in hanging Tawidh written from Qur’an ,provided it is taken off before going to the toilet and before intercourse.

Sihr

Dark/Black Magic

 

BEHAVIOR OF OLD & YOUNG IN ISLAM

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In every society there are some members who are senior in age and others who are junior to them. The Beloved Prophet (S.A.W.) has, also, explained (in his teachings) what their mutual behavior should be. Stated below are a few Ahadith regarding this aspect of social conduct, which may appear insignificant to some people, but plays an important part in promoting a happy and peaceful life, both at family and community levels.

In one Hadith the Prophet (S.A.W.) is reported to have stated that

“He is not of us, who is not affectionate to those who are younger than him and is not respectful to those who are older.”

In another Hadith he said,

Whoever does not show affection to the young, and respect to the old, is not one of us.

The occasion for the stating of the second Hadith, as related by Anas (R.A.) was once when an elderly person came to meet Rasulullah (PBUH) and the people present in the gathering took some time to make way (clear a path in their midst) for him to go up to the Prophet (PBUH)- i.e. they did not move quickly enough as the old person’s age would have required.

Therefore, these Ahadith show that anyone who wishes to remain attached to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and his faith should treat those who are younger, to him, with affection and mercy, and those who are older with respect and honor.

It is related by Anas (RA.) that the Prophet of Allah (PBUH) said

“For the young man who will honor an old man because of his age, Allah will appoint men who will honor him in his old age.”

This Hadith explains that, although the reward for showing good manners and respect to one’s elders will be in the Hereafter, the Almighty bestows His favors to such people in this world too.

Article Contributed by: itsIslam Staff

ÇOK YİYEN 6 BELA İLE KARŞILAŞIR

Tefekkür, ibret ve hikmet; açlık ve hüzün hâlinde daha kolay elde edilir. Zira mide fazla dolunca, tefekkür âdeta uyuşur, gönlün hassâsiyet ve rikkati körelir.  Ebû Süleyman Dârânî (r.a.) çok yiyenin kaşılaşacağı altı belayı ise şöyle açıklıyor. 

Bâyezîd-i Bistâmî Hazretleri buyurur:

“Açlık, bulut gibidir. Kişi az yemeye riâyet edince, kalbi hikmet yağmurları yağdırmaya başlar.” [1]

Tefekkür, ibret ve hikmet; açlık ve hüzün hâlinde daha kolay elde edilir. Zira mide fazla dolunca, tefekkür âdeta uyuşur, gönlün hassâsiyet ve rikkati körelir.

Şu hâdise, açlık veya tokluğun gönüldeki tesirini îzah bakımından ne kadar hikmetlidir:

Mısır’da şiddetli kıtlığın yaşandığı günlerde, Yûsuf -aleyhisselam-’a sordular:

“–Sen, devletin hazinelerine hükmeden bir idarecisin. Neden kendini aç bırakıyorsun?”

O ise şu ibretli cevabı verdi:

“–Karnım tok olursa, açların hâlini anlayamam diye korkuyorum!”

ÇOK YİYENİN KARŞILAŞACAĞI ALTI BELA

Yine çok yemenin kalp âlemi üzerindeki tesirine dâir, Ebû Süleyman Dârânî  -rahmetullahi aleyh- der ki:

“Her nesnenin pası vardır. Gönlün pası da çok yemektir. Kim çok yerse altı belâ ile karşılaşır:

1) Kıldığı namazın tadını bulamaz.

2) Unutkan olur.

3) Şefkat ve merhameti azalır. Zira kendisi tok olunca, herkesi tok zanneder.

4) Tâat kılma hususunda tembellik gelir.

5) Şehveti gâlip olur.

6) Müslümanlar mescide varırken o ise helâya gider.”[2]

Her hususta en büyük örnek şahsiyetimiz olan Rasûlullah -sallallahu aleyhi ve sellem- Efendimiz ve ashâbı da, acıkmadan yemez, yediklerinde de karınlarını tamamen doyurmazlardı. Boğazlarından geçen lokmaların zikrini duyacak derecede yüksek bir gönül feyzi içinde yaşarlardı.

MİDENİN ÜÇTE BİRİNİ YEMEĞE AYIR

Efendimiz -sallallahu aleyhi ve sellem-:

“…Şayet bir kimsenin mutlaka çok yemesi gerekiyorsa, midesinin üçte birini yemeğe, üçte birini içeceğe, üçte birini de nefesine ayırsın!” buyururdu. (Tirmizî, Zühd, 47)

Hazret-i Âişe -radıyallahu anha- Vâlidemizʼin ifadesiyle:

“Rasûlullah -sallallahu aleyhi ve sellem-’in aile efrâdı, Medîne’ye geldiği günden vefat ettiği âna kadar, üç gün arka arkaya buğday ekmeğiyle karnını doyurmadı.” (Müslim, Zühd, 20)

Efendimiz -sallallahu aleyhi ve sellem- Medîneʼde -dilese- en müreffeh hayatı yaşayabilirdi. Zira ganimetlerin beşte biri Allâhʼın emriyle Peygamber Efendimizʼe tahsis edilmişti. Ayrıca kendisine nice hediyeler de gelirdi.

Lâkin Efendimiz -sallallahu aleyhi ve sellem-, hiçbir mecburiyeti olmadığı hâlde, gelen bu ganimet ve hediyeleri hemen Ashâb-ı Suffeʼye ve muhtaçlara infâk eder, ondan ancak kifâyet miktarını evine ayırırdı. Hattâ evine ayırdığını da, daha sonra gelen bir başka fakire infâk ettiği olurdu. Yüksek mesʼûliyet ve merhameti sebebiyle, ümmeti aç ve muhtaçken kendisi huzur bulamazdı.

Yine Efendimiz -sallallahu aleyhi ve sellem- zaman zaman “savm-ı visâl” tutardı. İftar etmeden birkaç gün peş peşe tutulan bu oruç, sadece Rasûlullah -sallallahu aleyhi ve sellem- Efendimizʼe mahsustu. Ümmetini ise -güç yetiremeyecekleri için- bundan men ederdi.

Az yemenin ve oruç tutmanın, nefsâniyeti bertaraf etme ve rûhâniyeti inkişâf ettirmedeki tesiri sebebiyledir ki, peygamberler de, nübüvvetin rûhâniyetine oruçla hazırlanmışlardır. Rûhî inkişâfın zirvesine ulaştıklarında âdeta insanlık âleminden uzaklaşmış ve kendilerinde melekî vasıflar tecellî edince, kalpleri ve dimağları, ilâhî vahye mazhariyetle şereflenmiştir.

Nitekim Hazret-i Mûsâ -aleyhisselam- Cenâb-ı Hakʼla mükâlemeden evvel, kırk gün “savm-ı visâl” yani iftarsız oruç tutmuştur. Hazret-i Îsâ -aleyhisselam- da, İncilʼden ilk kelâmı duyuncaya kadar, kırk gün oruç tutmuştur.

[1] Attâr, Tezkire, s. 198; Hânî, Hadâik, s. 319.

[2] Tezkiretüʼl-Evliyâ, s. 89-90, Erkam Yayınları, İstanbul, 1984.

Kaynak: Osman Nuri Topbaş, Bâyezîd-i Bistâmî, Erkam Yayınları

 

source

Praying 2 Rak’at Sunnah of Fajr when Jam’at is in Progress

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1. Introduction

There is well known khilaf among the jurists (fuqaha) as to praying the two rak’at sunnah salah of fajr while the congregational obligatory salah has started.

Al-Shafi’i said that if the prescribed prayer has commenced he is not to offer the two rak’as inside or outside the mosque. Al-Nawawi writes that Imam Ahmad and the majority (jamhoor) have the same opinion as Al-Shafi’i [1] whereas the Hanafiyya differ.

قال محمد: يكره إذا أقيمت الصلاة، أن يصلي الرجل تطوعا غير ركعتي الفجر خاصة، فإنه لا بأس بأن يصليهما الرجل إن أخذ المؤذن في الإقامة، وكذلك ينبغي، وهو قول أبي حنيفة رحمه الله

Muhammad (bin al-Hasan al-Shaybani) said: “When the iqamah is announced, it is disliked for a man to pray a non-obligatory prayer, the only exception being the two rak’as of Fajr, for there is no harm in a man’s praying them even though the mu’adhdhin has started the iqamah. That is the verdict of Imam Abu Hanifa.”[2]

2. Evidence for the opinion of the majority (jamhoor)

As stated the opinion of the majority if of impermissibility of offering any nafal prayers while the obligatory (fard) salah is in progress. This view is based on the consideration of the general implication of the well-known hadith;

عن أبي هريرة، عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، قال: «إذا أقيمت الصلاة فلا صلاة إلا المكتوبة

Abu Huraira reported the Messneger of Allah -may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him- as saying: “When the prayer commences, there is no prayer but the obligatory one.”[3]

The same is reported from other companions as well including Ibn ‘Umar.[4]

Prima facie, the most categorical evidence for this view is in the additional words for the above mentioned narration of Abu Huraira recorded by al-Baihaqi in his Sunan al-Kubra i.e.

قيل: يا رسول الله، ولا ركعتي الفجر؟ قال: ولا ركعتي الفجر

“It was said: O Messenger of Allah, ‘Not even the two rak’as of fajr?’ He said, ‘Not even the two rak’as of fajr.’”[5]

There is, however, a question mark on the authenticity of this addendum.  Although Hafiz Ibn Hajr has graded it as Hasan, Al-Baihaqi himself mentioned that two of its narrators, namely: Nasr bin Hajib and his son Yahya, are not reliable.

Al-Shawkani highlights that another narrator Muslim bin Khalid al-Zanji is also controversial (mutakallam fihi).[6]

Another evidence for their opinion is in the following hadith;

عن مالك ابن بحينة: أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم رأى رجلا وقد أقيمت الصلاة يصلي ركعتين، فلما انصرف رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لاث به الناس، وقال له رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: «الصبح أربعا، الصبح أربعا

Narrated Malik Ibn Buhaina: Allah’s Messnger passed by or saw a man praying two Rakat after the Iqama (had been pronounced). When Allah’s Messenger completed the salat (prayer), the people gathered around him (the Prophet) or that man and Allah’s Messenger said to him (protesting), ‘Are there four Rak‘as in Fajr prayer? Are there four Rak‘as in Fajr prayer?”[7]

Al-Nawawi mentions that in this Hadith is an explicit forbiddance for starting the supererogatory (nafal) salah after the obligatory prayer has begun.[8]

The report is narrated from other companions as well. According to another report the person whom the Prophet saw was Ibn ‘Abbas.[9]

3. Proofs for the stance of the Hanafiyya

While the Hanafi scholars agree that generally the rule is that no nafal salah is valid if started after the beginning of the jama’h, they hold that two rak’a sunnah of fajr is an exception due to great importance. Al-‘Ayni refers[10] to the following narrations in making this argument;

عن عائشة رضي الله عنها، قالت: لم يكن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم على شيء من النوافل أشد منه تعاهدا على ركعتي الفجر

Narrated ‘Aishah: “The Prophet was never more regular and strict in offering any Nawafil than the two Rak’a (Sunnah) of the Salatu-ul-Fajr prayer.”[11]

عن أبي هريرة، قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: لا تدعوهما، وإن طردتكم الخيل

Narrated Abu Hurayrah: The Prophet (may peace be upon him) said: “Do not omit them (the two rak’as before the dawn prayer) even if you are driven away by the horses.”[12]

Moreover, the Hanafiyyah seek evidence with the practice of some of the companions. Consider the following reports recorded by al-Tahawi and others.

عن نافع، يقول: أيقظت ابن عمر رضي الله عنهما لصلاة الفجر , وقد أقيمت الصلاة , فقام فصلى الركعتين

Narrated Nafi’: “I awakened Ibn ‘Umar for Fajr Salah, while the (jama’h of) salah had started, he got up and performed two rak’a of salah.”[13]

عن أبي إسحاق، قال: حدثني عبد الله بن أبي موسى، عن أبيه، حين دعاهم سعيد بن العاص، دعا أبا موسى , وحذيفة , وعبد الله بن مسعود رضي الله عنهم , قبل أن يصلي الغداة , ثم خرجوا من عنده وقد أقيمت الصلاة , فجلس عبد الله إلى أسطوانة من المسجد , فصلى الركعتين , ثم دخل في الصلاة “

Abu Ishaq says, “‘Abdullah bin Abu Musa related to me from his father regarding the time Sa’id bin al-‘As called them. He had called Abu Musa, Huzayfa, and ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud before the Fajr salah. When they departed from him, the congregation had already begun, so ‘Abdullah bin Mas’ud positioned himself behind a pillar in the masjid and performed two rak’as sunnah first, then joined the congregation.”[14]

After quoting this, al-Tahawi writes;

فهذا عبد الله قد فعل هذا ومعه حذيفة وأبو موسى لا ينكران ذلك عليه , فدل ذلك على موافقتهما إياه

“And it was ‘Abdullah who did this and with him were Huzayfa and Abu Musa. They did not criticize him for this. It is evidence that they both agreed with him on this issue.”

عن أبي مجلز، قال: دخلت المسجد في صلاة الغداة مع ابن عمر وابن عباس رضي الله عنهم , والإمام يصلي. فأما ابن عمر رضي الله عنهما فدخل في الصف , وأما ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما , فصلى ركعتين , ثم دخل مع الإمام , فلما سلم الإمام قعد ابن عمر مكانه , حتى طلعت الشمس , فقام فركع ركعتين “

Abu al-Mijliz said: “I entered the mosque at the time of Fajr Salah with ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar and ‘Abdullah bin ‘Abbas, may Allah be pleased with them, and the Imam was in prayer so Ibn ‘Umar joined the Salah while Ibn Abbas offered two rak’as then he entered the salah with Imam. When the Imam ended the Salah Ibn ‘Umar sat at his place until the sun rose then he stood up and offered two rak’as (sunnah).”[15]

عن أبي الدرداء أنه كان يدخل المسجد والناس صفوف في صلاة الفجر , فيصلي الركعتين في ناحية المسجد , ثم يدخل مع القوم في الصلاة

Abu Darda stated: “I entered the Masjid when the people had stood row by row in Fajr salah. He performed two rak’as of salah at one side of the mosque, and then joined the congregation in salah.”[16]

عن وبرة ، قال : رأيت ابن عمر يفعله ، وحدثني من رآه فعله مرتين ؛ جاء مرة وهم في الصلاة ، فصلاهما في جانب المسجد ، ثم دخل مرة أخرى فصلى معهم ، ولم يصلهما

Wabrah narrated: “I saw Ibn ‘Umar doing it [i.e. praying the two rak’a of fajr while the jam’ah was in progress]. And one who saw him twice narrated to me. Once he came and the people were praying, so he offered two rak’as in a corner of the mosque [before joining the jam’ah]. And at another time he joined the people in the prayers and did not pray two rak’as.”[17]

4. Analysis of the Proofs

The strength of the evidence of the majority (jamhoor) is evident as their case rests on direct narrations traced back to the Holy Prophet himself, may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. As quoted by Ibn Hajr, Hafiz Ibn Abdul Barr argued that best in the case of this difference is to stick to the sunnah of the Prophet and leave the nawafil at the time of the fard salah and to offer them afterwards.[18]

However, the evidence to the contrary is not such that can be rejected or overlooked. This is especially true for the fact that Ibn ‘Umar who also narrated the Hadith “When the prayer commences, there is no prayer but the obligatory one” is, as shown above, reported to have offered the two rak’a of fajr while the jam’ah was in progress.

Likewise Ibn ‘Abbas was the one whom the Holy Prophet –may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him- questioned about offering the two rak’a at the time of iqama for fajr and yet he also did the same as mentioned above.

Commenting to the narration of Malik bin Buhaina, al-Qurtubi writes;

وهذا إنكار منه صلى الله عليه وسلم على الرجل لصلاته ركعتي الفجر في المسجد والإمام يصلي، ويمكن أن يستدل به أيضا على أن ركعتي الفجر إن وقعت في تلك الحال صحت، لأنه عليه السلام لم يقطع عليه صلاته مع تمكنه من ذلك، والله أعلم

“This points to Holy Prophet’s dislike for the person who stands up for two rak’as of fajr while the imam is leading the prayers. And it may also be inferred that if the two rak’as of fajr are offered this way they are valid because the Holy Prophet did not make him break the salah even though he could. And Allah knows the best!”[19]

Moreover, earlier we saw the narrations mentioning the practice of four companions (Ibn Mas’ud, Ibn ‘Abbas, Ibn ‘Umar and Abu Darda’) who were among the acutest juristic minds in the generation of the companions.

Along with the great emphasis on these two rak’as the general instruction is not to offer them except after the sunrise. One hadith says;

عن أبي هريرة، قال: ” نهى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم عن صلاتين: بعد الفجر حتى تطلع الشمس، وبعد العصر حتى تغرب الشمس

Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah’s Messenger forbade the offering of two Salat (prayers)
1) After the Fajr (early morning) prayer till the sunrises. 2) After the ‘Asr prayer till the sun sets.
[20]

In another hadith it is stated that one who misses the two rak’as can make them after the sunset;

عن أبي هريرة، قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: «من لم يصل ركعتي الفجر فليصلهما بعد ما تطلع الشمس»

Abu Huraira reported that Allah’s Messenger said: “He who has not offered the two rak’as of fajr may offer them after sunrise.”[21]

This makes redeeming them very difficult especially if one has to set on a journey or has some other commitment right after fajr.

5. Conclusion

These factors indicate the general ruling is not without some, albeit, conditional exceptions. The safest and most sound opinion appears to be that while generally it is not recommended to pray while the jam’ah is in progress in case of some urgency one may do it in view of the importance of these two rak’as. Al-Tahawi reconciled all the reports saying the same.[22]

Allah knows the best!

References


[1] Sharh Sahih Muslim, vol.5 pp.222-223
[2] Al-Shaybani, Muhammad bin al-Hasan, Muwatta, Vol.1 p.56
[3] Sahih Muslim, Book 4, Hadith 1532
[4] Al-Tahawi, Sharh Mushkil al-Athar, vol. 10 p.318 Hadith 4132. Shu’aib al-Arna’ut said, “Its narrators are those of al-Sahih except ‘Abdullah bin Marwan and Al-Dhahabi mentioned in Al-Mizan [Al-A’itidal] that Suleman bin ‘Abdul Rahman al-Damishqi graded him as trustworthy (wathaqa) …”
[5] Sunan al-Kubra, Hadith 4225
[6] Nayl al-Awtar, vol.3 p.102
[7] Sahih Bukhari, Book 10, Chapter 38, Hadith 663
[8] Sharh Sahih Muslim, vol.5 p.222
[9] Musnad Ahmad, Hadith 3329. Classified as Hasan by Shu’aib al-Arna’ut.
[10] ‘Umdatul Qari, vol.5 pp.184-185
[11] Sahih Bukhari, Book 19, Chapter 27, Hadith 1169
[12] Sunan Abu Dawud, Book 4, Hadith 1253. Al-Nimawi classified it as sahih (See, Athar al-Sunan, Hadith 708)
[13] Sharh M’ani al-Athar, Hadith 2203. Classified as sahih by al-Nimawi (see, Athar al-Sunan, Hadith 719)
[14] Sharh M’ani al-Athar, Hadith 2198. Taqi Usmani graded its isnad as sahih, (see, Darse Tirmidhi, vol.2 pp.187-188)
[15] Sharh M’ani al-Athar, Hadith 2200. Classified as sahih by al-Nimawi (see, Athar al-Sunan, Hadith 726)
[16] Sharh M’ani al-Athar, Hadith 2205. Classified as hasan by al-Nimawi (see, Athar al-Sunan, Hadith 722)
[17] Musannaf Ibn Abi Shayba, Hadith 6418. One of its narrators is Dalham bin Salih. Abu Dawud said, “There is no problem with him.” Yahya bin Ma’in said, “[He is] da’if.” (see, Tahdhib al-Kamal, vol.8 pp.494-495)
[18] Fath al-Bari, vol.2 pp.150-151
[19] Al-Jami’ li-Ahkam al-Qur’an, vol.1 p.168
[20] Sahih Bukhari, Book 9, Chapter 31, Hadith 588
[21] Jami’ al-Tirmidhi, Book 2, Chapter, 197, Hadith 423 Classified as sahih by al-Nimawi (see, Athar al-Sunan, Hadith 739)
[22] Mushkil al-Athar, vol.10 pp.322-323

THE SAYING OF POLYTHEISTS, “YOU HAVE A PARTNER UNDER YOUR OWNERSHIP”

wahhabism.jpg

In authentic narrations, it is mentioned that during the practice of Hajj the idolators used to say in their Talbiyah: “You have no partner except the partner that You have, You own Him and whatever he owns”. The followers of Muhammed Ibn Abdul Wahab cite this saying of the polytheists to argue that polytheists believed in the oneness of Allah’s Lordship or oneness in His Ownership.

In this saying “You have no partner except the partner that You have, You own Him and whatever he owns” we see on the one hand the polytheist explicitly ascribing a partner to Allah, yet they are claiming the partner to be under Allah’s ownership. The Wahhabiyya take the latter statement in isolation as a proof for their argument that polytheists recognized the oneness of Allah’s Lordship. But the reality of its meaning can be understood by noting the following Quranic parable against the belief of polytheists:

{He gives you this example, drawn from your own lives: do you make your slaves full partners with an equal share in what We have given you? Do you fear them as you fear each other? This is how We make Our messages clear to those who use their reason.} [30:28]

This above verse was revealed as a response to this talbiyah of Mushriks, as mentioned by Ibn Kathir in his tafsir:

At-Tabarani recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “The people of Shirk used to say in their Talbiyah, `At Your service, You have no partner except the partner that You have, You own Him and whatever he owns.’ Then Allah revealed the words: {Do you have partners among those whom your right hands possess to share as equals in the wealth We have bestowed on you, whom you fear as you fear each other}”

From this verse we see that Allah analogized their belief with that of a master who took his slave as an equal partner. This belief is self contradictory. This is because; if the slave was made into an equal partner of the master then the slave would no longer remain a slave. So it is impossible that he could be a slave and partner at the same time. If he was a slave then he would no longer be an equal partner, and if he was a partner then he would not be a slave. It was such inconsistent or rationally absurd creed the polytheists ascribed to Allah. It is such self contradicting belief contained in the saying of idolators “You have no partner except the partner that You have, You own Him and whatever he owns”, because a partner of Allah cannot be under His Ownership. This is similar to the self contradiction of the Christians who say God is one as well as three.

Moreover we also clearly see from this parable in the Quran that the Mushriks believed these partners have an equal share in the ownership over creation and that they believed Allah feared these partners.  This is all blatant shirk in Allah’s Lordship.

To add to all of this, we see in another verse,

{And say, “Praise to Allah , who has not taken a son and has had no partner in [His] dominion and has no [need of a] protector out of weakness; and glorify Him with [great] glorification.”} [Quran 17:111]

In this verse, Allah rejects belief that Allah has son, a partner in his dominion or that he needs a protector, which are all shirk in Ruboobiyah.

Ibn Kathir in commentary to this verse says,

Ibn Jarir recorded that Al-Qurazi used to say about this Ayah,
{And say: “All the praises and thanks be to Allah, Who has not begotten a son…”} that the Jews and Christians said that Allah has taken a son; the Arabs said, “At Your service, You have no partner except the partner You have, and You possess him and whatever he owns;” and the Sabians and Magians said, “If it were not for the supporters of Allah, He would be weak.” Then Allah revealed this Ayah : {And say: “All the praises and thanks be to Allah, Who has not begotten a son, and Who has no partner in (His) dominion, nor is He low to have a supporter. And magnify Him with all magnificence.”}

We see that this verse was revealed against those Arabs who said the same “You have no partner except the partner that You have, You own Him and whatever he owns”. And yet notice the verse here shows that the Arab polytheists believed Allah has partner in His “Mulk (dominion)” thereby refuting therefore the argument given by the Salafiyya that the talbiyah proved the Mushriks did not associate such a partner.

Imam al-Qurtubi says in commentary to the above verse:

قوله تعالى: { وَقُلِ ٱلْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ ٱلَّذِي لَمْ يَتَّخِذْ وَلَداً } هذه الآية رادة على اليهود والنصارى والعرب في قولهم أفذاذاً: عزير وعيسى والملائكة ذرية الله سبحانه؛ تعالى الله عن أقوالهم! { وَلَم يَكُنْ لَّهُ شَرِيكٌ فِي ٱلْمُلْكِ } لأنه واحد لا شريك له في ملكه ولا في عبادته.

http://altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?tMadhNo=0&tTafsirNo=5&tSoraNo=17&tAyahNo=111&tDisplay=yes&UserProfile=0&LanguageId=1

Rough translation: “{Praise to Allah , who has not taken a son} This ayah is a refutation of the Jews, Christians and Arabs in their saying: Uzair, Isa and the angels are offspring of Allah…{and has had no partner in [His] dominion} because (He is) one and has no partner in His dominion and in worship”

Imam Ibn Adil al Hanbali (d. 880H) in commentary to this verse says:

وهذه الآية ردٌّ على اليهود في قولهم
{ عُزَيْرٌ ٱبْنُ ٱللَّهِ }
[التوبة: 30]، وردٌّ على النصارى في قولهم
{ ٱلْمَسِيحُ ٱبْنُ ٱللَّهِ }
[التوبة: 31] وعلى مشركي العرب في قولهم: ” المَلائِكةُ بنَاتُ الله “.

والنوع الثاني من الصفات السلبية قوله: { وَلَمْ يَكُن لَّهُ شَرِيكٌ فِي ٱلْمُلْكِ }.

والسَّببُ في اعتبار هذه الصفة: أنَّه لو كان له شريكٌ، فلا يعرف كونه مستحقًّا للحمد والشُّكر.

http://altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?tMadhNo=0&tTafsirNo=24&tSoraNo=17&tAyahNo=111&tDisplay=yes&Page=8&Size=1&LanguageId=1

Rough translation:

“This verse is a refutation of the Jews who said {Uzair is the son of Allah} , and refutation of the Christians in their saying {the Messiah is the son of Allah} and the Arab Mushriks in their saying “angels are daughters of Allah” …………. {and He has no partner in [His] dominion} the reason for mentioning this attribute is that: If he had a partner, then he is not in truth worthy of praise and thanking.”

From all this we see that from among the beliefs of the Arab Mushriks who use to say the talbiyah was that the angels were daughters of Allah which is shirk in Lordship by itself and that they  were made as equal partners to Allah in His Dominion and that Allah was in fear of them and in need of them, which are beliefs that constitute shirk in Lordship. And it is because of such plethora of beliefs that the Mushriks denied Allah alone was worthy of worship.

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