Atatürk’ün meşhur fotoğrafı kurmacamı?

Tarihçi Mustafa Armağan Sosyal Medya hesabından Mustafa Kemal İle İlgili yıllarca anlatılan Bir efsaneyi daha çökertecek fotoğraflar paylaştı.Ve şu tweeti de yazdı “Poz da verir, Anayasamız Kuran’dır da der.” Yıllarca yayınlanan o fotoğraf bizlere “Mustafa Kemal İnönü Savaşları Günlerinde karlar üzerinde uyurken (12 Şubat 1921), Ankara Dikmende çekilmiştir ” diye anlatılmıştı. Ama Aslında işin aslının öyle olmadığı Tarihçi Mustafa Armağan’ın paylaştığı fotoğraflarda çok açık bir şekilde anlaşılmaktadır. Aslında Mustafa Kemal’in gidip o fotoğrafı çekitirmek poz verdiği açıkca görülüyor.

Mustafa Kemal Dikmen sırtlarında Yaveri Muzaffer Kılıç ile (12 Şubat 1921)

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What are the origins of Daesh?

Daesh militant group arose from ashes of 2003 US-led invasion of Saddam Hussein’s Iraq

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ISTANBUL

After the U.S. invasion of Iraq in 2003, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi established Jamaat al-Tawhid wal-Jihad one year later to confront U.S. troops.

After many transformations, that extremist group eventually became what is now known as Daesh.

With the escalated situation in Iraq and Syria, the group has since managed to establish a strategic terrorist base in the Middle East by seizing large swathes of territory in both countries.

Daesh’s ideology and terrorist methods, meanwhile, have made the group a primary factor in the burgeoning Islamophobia now seen in the West.

In 2006, al-Zarqawi announced the establishment of the “Mujahideen Shura Council”, which aimed to unify all of Iraq’s armed Sunni factions under a single umbrella.

However, U.S. forces killed al-Zarqawi in the same year, and he was succeeded by Abu Omar al-Baghdadi.

The new leader changed the Council’s name to “the Islamic State of Iraq”, but the group was subsequently worn down in fighting U.S. and Iraqi military forces.

Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi replaced Abu Omar al-Baghdadi after the U.S. managed to kill the latter in 2010.

After a popular uprising in Syria turned into civil war in 2011, Abu Mohamed al-Julani, a Syrian national who had been one of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi’s top commanders, split with a number of other Syrians from the Islamic State of Iraq to form the “Nusra Front” in Syria.

The Nusra Front eventually joined other Syrian opposition groups in the ongoing conflict against the regime of President Bashar al-Assad.

In 2013, al-Baghdadi announced the formation of “the Islamic State in Iraq and al-Sham”, later known as “Daesh”.

Al-Baghdadi called on al-Julani to swear allegiance to Daesh, but the latter refused to do so, even though some of al-Julani’s men later joined al-Baghdadi, allowing Daesh to make inroads into Syria.

Daesh engaged in armed conflict in Syria, but instead of fighting the Syrian regime, it preferred to seize opposition-held areas in the northern parts of the country, thereby weakening Syria’s moderate opposition and strengthening Assad.

Daesh has also engaged in fierce clashes with the Nusra Front, especially after the assassination of Abu Khaled al-Suri in February 2014. Al-Suri had been tasked by al-Zawahiri, leader of Al-Qaeda in Iraq, to settle the ongoing dispute between the two groups.

Al-Julani at one point broadcast a voice recording in which he vowed to fight Daesh. Later, the Nusra Front began attacking Daesh positions — and those of other pro-regime armed groups — in eastern Syria’s Deir Ez-zor province.

Daesh also assassinated high-ranking commanders in moderate Syrian opposition groups, such as the Free Syrian Army and the Ahrar al-Sham movement.

Moreover, Daesh executed a number of Christian clerics, creating a negative impression about the Syrian opposition in western countries, since Daesh used to define itself as an anti-Assad opposition group.

One of Daesh’s turning points was the Abu Gharib prison break in July 2013, when around 1,000 prisoners escaped. The prisoners included a number of extremists who later became senior Daesh commanders.

Meanwhile, Iraq’s then prime minister, Nouri al-Maliki, took advantage of the regional competition between the U.S. and Iran to carry out numerous violations against Sunni Arabs in Iraq. This led to what was later called “the Sunni Arab revolution” against al-Maliki in 2014.

Daesh also took advantage of a Sunni tribal uprising against the al-Maliki government — and the Iranian-U.S. rivalry — to recruit former officers loyal to ousted former President Saddam Hussein.

In June 2014, Daesh overran the city of Mosul, the regional capital of Iraq’s Nineveh province, without encountering significant resistance from the Iraqi army.

Afterwards, the group advanced on Baghdad, taking the cities of Fallujah, Diyala and Tikrit.

On June 29, 2014, Daesh’s ”Caliphate” was declared in Iraq, headed up by its ”Caliph”, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi.

Daesh, which contains both pro-Saddam elements and foreign fighters, lists its enemies as non-Muslims and Muslims who don’t share its worldview, describing the latter as “apostates”.

The group deals brutally with its enemies, while destroying the region’s pre-Islamic historical heritage.

Daesh later captured Raqqa city, which became its headquarters in Syria, while targeting elements of the Syrian opposition, especially near the Turkish border.

Meanwhile, the group secretly dealt with the Syrian regime and seized a number of the country’s oil wells.

Daesh has indiscriminately killed children, women and journalists, destroyed artifacts and historical sites, and has caused Syrian Turkmen, Kurds and Yazidis to flee the country to next-door Turkey.

Notably, the rise of Daesh dovetails with the desire of certain world powers to divide the region, leading some observers to believe that the group is working in conjunction with foreign intelligence agencies.

These suspicions were heightened when Daesh targeted Iraq’s Yazidi-majority Sinjar district and the predominantly-Kurdish city Kobani while avoiding any conflict with the Syrian regime in Syria’s Deir ez-Zor province.

Within the same context, since late September, Russian warplanes have mainly targeted moderate Syrian opposition groups that are opposed to Daesh.

The ascendancy of Daesh, meanwhile, has contributed to rising Islamphobia in the West by giving foreign observers the impression that its violent methods are being done in the name of Islam.

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Görme Engellilere Özel “Akıllı Eldiven” Üretti

GÖRÜNTÜ DÖKÜMÜ: – Görme engellilerin el hareketlerini latin alfabesine dönüştüren eldivenden detaylar- Eldiveni geliştiren AÜ Mühendislik Fakültesi Elektrik-Elektronik Bölümü 4. sınıf öğrencisi Erhan Akan konuşması Görme engelliler için “akıllı eldiven” geliştirdi- Eskişehir’de bir üniversite öğrencisi, görme engellilerin el ve parmak hareketlerini, sensörler ve bilgisayar yardımıyla yazıya dökebilen “akıllı eldiven” geliştirdi- AÜ Mühendislik Fakültesi Elektrik-Elektronik Mühendisliği Bölümü 4. sınıf öğrencisi Akan: – “Yaptığımız projeyle öncelikle görme engelli vatandaşlarımız kelimeleri rahatlıkla yazıya dökebilecek ayrıca oyuncular için de konsol görevi görebilecek” SİNAN BALCIKOCA – Anadolu Üniversitesi (AÜ) Mühendislik Fakültesi Elektrik-Elektronik Mühendisliği Bölümü öğrencisi Erhan Akan, görme engellilerin el ve parmak hareketlerini, sensörler ve bilgisayar yardımıyla yazıya dökebilen “akıllı eldiven” geliştirdi.

 

GÖRÜNTÜ DÖKÜMÜ: – Görme engellilerin el hareketlerini latin alfabesine dönüştüren eldivenden detaylar- Eldiveni geliştiren AÜ Mühendislik Fakültesi Elektrik-Elektronik Bölümü 4. sınıf öğrencisi Erhan Akan konuşması Görme engelliler için “akıllı eldiven” geliştirdi- Eskişehir‘de bir üniversite öğrencisi, görme engellilerin el ve parmak hareketlerini, sensörler ve bilgisayar yardımıyla yazıya dökebilen “akıllı eldiven” geliştirdi- AÜ Mühendislik Fakültesi Elektrik-Elektronik Mühendisliği Bölümü 4. sınıf öğrencisi Akan: – “Yaptığımız projeyle öncelikle görme engelli vatandaşlarımız kelimeleri rahatlıkla yazıya dökebilecek ayrıca oyuncular için de konsol görevi görebilecek” SİNAN BALCIKOCA – Anadolu Üniversitesi (AÜ) Mühendislik Fakültesi Elektrik-Elektronik Mühendisliği Bölümü öğrencisi Erhan Akan, görme engellilerin el ve parmak hareketlerini, sensörler ve bilgisayar yardımıyla yazıya dökebilen “akıllı eldiven” geliştirdi. Elektrik-Elektronik Mühendisliği Bölümü 4’üncü sınıf öğrencisi Erhan Akan’ın “Akıllı Eldiven” adlı tez projesi kapsamında geliştirdiği eldiven, görme engellilerin ellerini bir klavye gibi kullanarak yazı yazmasına olanak sağlıyor. Eldivenin her bir parmağı üzerine monte edilen sensörler sayesinde, el ve parmak hareketleri ana bilgisayara aktarılan görme engelli, el ve parmak hareketlerini okuyan özel bir yazılım ile işaret diline göre kodlanmış harfleri kolaylıkla yazıya dökebiliyor. Akan, AA muhabirine yaptığı açıklamada, söz konusu eldiveni, görme engellilerin bilgisayar ya da telefona harf girmek için rahatlıkla kullanabileceğini söyledi.Projenin yaklaşık bir yılda tamamlandığını belirten Akan, “Eldivenin üzerindeki sensör kıvrılınca üzerindeki gerilim değişiyor. Bu gerilim algılanarak anlamlı sembol haline dönüşüyor. Bunun için bir mikro işlemci kullandık. Yaptığımız projeyle öncelikle görme engelliler, kelimeleri rahatlıkla yazıya dökebilecek” diye konuştu.- “Kablosuz hale getirilince kişiye serbestlik sağlayacak”Akan, “akıllı eldiven”in henüz kablolu sistemle çalıştığını söyledi. Sistemi kablosuz hale getirmek için çalışmalarının devam ettiğini anlatan Akan, şöyle devam etti: “Kablosuz eldiven, kişiye serbestlik sağlayacak. Görme engelli vatandaşlarımız klavye üzerindeki tuşlara basarak da yazabilir ama bu aynı zamanda cep telefonlarına da entegre edilecek. ‘İnsanlar eldiven yardımıyla rahatlıkla bilgisayara harf girebilsin’ diye yapıldı ancak sonrasında amacını aştı. Kişi sadece işaret diline bağımlı olmayacak kendi atayacağı işaretlerle de yazı yazabilecek. Proje daha da geliştirildiğinde ise sadece el hareketleriyle kısıtlı değil havada yapılan hareketleri de yazıya dökebilecek.”- Sistem nasıl çalışıyor’Akan’ın verdiği bilgiye göre, sistem şöyle çalışıyor: “İlk önce kullanıcı, eldivenin bağlı bulunduğu sistemi çalıştırır ve eldiveni giyer. Daha sonra kullanıcı boşluk karakteri için eline bir şekil verir ve bu verdiği şekli hiç bozmadan düğmeye basarak bu şekli hafızaya kaydeder. Bu, sanki elin o anki şeklinin fotoğrafını çekmek gibi düşünülebilir. Aynı işlemi sırasıyla alfabedeki tüm harfler ve rakamlar için tekrar eder. Son karakter de kaydedildikten sonra, sistem tekrar düğmeye basılmasını ister. Düğmeye basıldığı anda sistem bu sefer kullanıcının elini havada hareket ettirmesini bekler. Kullanıcı harekete başladığı andan itibaren, hareket sonlandırılana kadar, sistem en fazla 2 saniye boyunca, elin havada nasıl bir hareket çizdiğini otomatik kaydeder. Bu ise elin o anki hareketlerinin videosunu çekmek gibi düşünülebilir ve bu hareketlere ‘jest’ (gesture) denir. Jest kaydı bittikten sonra düğmeye basılır ve sıradaki birkaç jest hareketi de bu şekilde kaydedilir. Bu jestler daha sonra bir komutu çalıştırmak için kullanılabilir artık sistem kullanıma hazırdır.”

Anadolu Ajans

sondakika

Al-‘Usul (Islamic Legal Maxims) of Imam al-Karkhi (d. 340 AH)

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Al-‘Usul (Islamic Legal Maxims) of Imam al-Karkhi (d. 340 AH)

The following is an English translation of a classical work on Islamic legal maxims known as Usul al-Karkhi by Imam Abul Hasan al-Karkhi (d. 340 AH) of Baghdad, Iraq. The appreciation and understanding of these maxims is a requirement to truly extract the correct judicial rulings from the four sources of Islamic law: The Qur’an, Sunna, Ijma and Qiyas.

This edition was rendered into English by Justice Munir Ahmad Mughal from the Punjab University Law college in Lahore, Pakistan. He mentioned the following in his abstract (see link below to download the work):

Abstract:

Before the establishment of Pakistan the slogan of all Muslims in India was: Pakistan ka matlab kiya La Ilaha Illallah–Muhammadur Rasulullah. By the Grace of Allah Almighty, the struggle of the Muslims under the leadership of Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad ‘Ali Jinnah, Pakistan was established as a national homeland for the Muslims on 14th of August 1947. The object of establishment of Pakistan was that the Muslims in Pakistan would be enabled individually and collectively to order their lives in accordance with the teachings and tenets of Islam, as set out in the Holy Qur’an and Sunnah. The objectives resolution of March 12, 1949 was passed for the same reason.

Allamah Iqbal had said: “…And I have no doubt that a deeper study of the enormous legal literature of Islam is sure to rid the modern critic of the superficial opinion that the law of Islam is stationary and incapable of development…”

By the Grace of Allah during last fifty years we are heading towards the Islamization of Law in Pakistan. Institutions like the Islamic Research Institute, Islamic Ideological Council, International Islamic University, Federal Shari‘at Court, Shari‘at Appellate Bench of the Supreme Court, the Legislature, the enforcement of Islamic Laws are all proof of this sincere effort. Both the state as well as the public desire the implementation of Islamic Injunctions. The present work is a humble attempt in this regard. The oldest collection of Legal Maxims that has reached to us is the Risalah ’Usul, al-Karkhi (260AH-340AH).

By deep study of these ’usul it reveals that they are inclusive of qawa`id, dawabit, ’usul, and kulliyat. Some of them have the status of such general kulliyat that can be declared as the collective asset of Islamic Fiqh and some ’usul are such which may be useful in knowing the effective cause of fiqhi values and to know the solution of fiqhi problems according to the Hanafi way of proving a thing (istidlal) and the Hanafi style of logical deduction on a legal question (ijtihad) by a learned and enlightened doctor (Mujtahid).

Imam al-Karkhi is the author of the first existing book on legal maxims.

Probably, in the said legal maxims, seventeen maxims of Imam of Ahl al-Ra’i Abu Tahir al-Dabbas, Al-Hafiz, al-Qadi, Muhammad bin Muhammad are also included who was a contemporary of Imam al-Karkhi. But it is difficult to point out exactly as to which were those seventeen principles of al-Dabbas in the collection of Al-Karkhi.

“…The style of Imam Karkhi is that he states the legal maxim in a small sentence while Imam Nasafi gives brief example. The principle and the example are so concise that a person who is not well-versed in fiqh he is not in a position to easily get benefit of it. Here it should be remembered that the legal maxims of Imam Karkhi have undergone the process of refinement in the later centuries and almost all the maxims at present are not in their original shape that was given to them by Imam Karkhi. For instance, out of the ninety nine legal maxims given in Al-Majallah only one maxim (article no. 4 of Al-Majallah) is partially stated according to the form of the first maxim of Al-’Usul of Imam Karkhi. Otherwise, all the remaining maxims are present in Al-Majallah so far as their meanings are concerned, but the words and statements are not the same which were given to them by Imam Karkhi.”

Each legal maxim begins with the word “al-aslu” (pl. al-usul), which literally means the root, the basis, the fundamental principle. Technically, it would mean the “basic rule is” or “the presumption is” or “it is to be presumed”. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) has said that wisdom is the lost property of every believer and wherever it is found he deserves the most to have it. To make use of the available treasures of Legal Maxims should be welcome provided always that it is not repugnant to the injunctions of the Holy Qur’an and the Sunnah. The criteria for all times to come and for all purposes shall remain: La ilaha illallah Muhammad ur-Rasulullah. “There is no God save Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.”

O Allah! Send thy Blessings upon Muhammad and his family as thou sent blessings upon Ibrahim and his family. O Allah! Send thy benedictions on Muhammad and his family as thou sent benedictions on Ibrahim and his family.

With this view I have translated the Arabic version of Al-`Usul of Imam Karkhi into English so that the legal fraternity throughout the world may get benefit from the light available from this source and a comparative study may be possible for the research scholars in the East and the West.

Alexander David Russell and Abdullah al-Mamun Suhrawardy translated Bakurat al-Sa`d (First Steps in Muslim Jurisprudence) of Ibn Abu Zayd into English, which is a treatise on the Maliki law, and gave Arabic text along with the translation and gave two reasons. I also adopt the same reasons, which are reproduced with minor adaptations: (a) For the lawyer or administrator who is to take a useful part in the practical application of Muslim law, it is of the greatest importance, indeed one may almost say indispensable to have some acquaintance with the original…the fact must be recognized at the outset, that here is no shallow study to be taken up and mastered in a few weeks, but a vast science in which the genius of the same people which gave arithmetic, algebra, trigonometry, astronomy, optics, chemistry and medicine to the western world, and generally stood at the cradle of modern science, has exhibited in itself in all its power and exactitude. To acquire, therefore, the technology of the subject is the first and indispensable step towards sound knowledge; and for the encouragement of the beginner it may be added that, despite the marvelous and well-nigh inexhaustible richness of the Arabic language in the domain of belles lettres, the conventional language of Muslim law is by no means so copious or varied as to defy any really earnest student; while the justness and preciseness of its employment will even at an early stage rouse his appreciation. (b) It may be useful both for the English readers and the Arabic scholars.

Book

https://ia802503.us.archive.org/13/items/UsulAlKarkhi/UsulAlKarkhi_englishEdn.pdf

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https://ia802503.us.archive.org/13/items/UsulAlKarkhi/UsulAlKarkhi_englishEdn.pdf

 

USED AFRICAN WOMEN DURING SLAVERY FOR SURGICAL EXPERIMENTS ?

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FYI !!! Did you know J. Marison Sims a.k.a ‘The Father of Modern Gynecology’ USED AFRICAN WOMEN DURING SLAVERY FOR SURGICAL EXPERIMENTS ? Sims medical experiments on black women created a cure for ‘vesicovaginal fistula,’ which allowed him to detect and cure illnesses such as cancer before it became deadly. He did not provide the slaves with anesthetic or medicine to numb their pain during these procedures, and if one of them died from complications or excessive bleeding, he simply replaced them with another slave. Because slaves were not seen as fully human and considered ‘private property’, it was completely legal for slaves to be subjected to all sorts of violence and medical experiments.

Learning about these horrific things can makes ones heart heavy, but I refuse to hide these historical facts. I will not allow my ancestors brutal experiences to remain unnoticed just because some people feel uncomfortable when the history of slavery is discussed. I also want people to understand that slavery wasn’t just about people being raped and forced to work for free for 400 years. The most devastating thing about slavery was the psychological terror that blacks endured. Nothing compares to being kidnapped from your homeland, sold and treated as ‘property,’ having your families divided for a lifetime, raped and brutalized to the fullest extent, used as medical experiments, and experienced psychological terror everyday for centuries. Many of our African-Americans Brotha and Sistas still suffer from post traumatic slave syndrome.

A lot of people are unaware that slavery was less than 150 years ago, which is no more than 3 generations ago. The transatlantic slave trade started in the 1400s and slavery legally ended in 1865 in the U.S.. That is over 400 years of social engineering, brainwashing, and terror that blacks have endured. This dysfunctional behavior has been passed down from generation to generation, and unfortunately it is going to take more than 150 years to properly reverse this mindset. Blacks never received psychological therapy after they were legally free. They were just forced to “get over it” and “move on,” and of course we all should know about the horrors of the Jim Crow Era, and racism today. Blacks really never had a chance to reinvent themselves because they have always been under attack in America. I refuse to ignore or downplay my ancestor’s experiences. Stop allowing others to tell you how to feel about your history, especially since it plays a critical role in our condition as a people today, economically, socially, and mentally !!!!

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