Deep Racism: The Forgotten History Of Human Zoos + Wikipedia

Human-Zoo-or-Negro-Village-e1392751461282

Racism is deeply embedded in our culture.  Slavery of African people, ethnic cleansing of Native Americans and colonialist imperialism are seeds that intertwine to create racism that still has impacts today.  One example of the sad human history of racism — of colonizers seeing themselves as superior to others — is the long history of human zoos that featured Africans and conquered indigenous peoples, putting them on display in much the same way as animals. People would be kidnapped and brought to be exhibited in human zoos.  It was not uncommon for these people to die quickly, even within a year of their captivity. This history is long and deep and continued into the 1950s.  Several articles below with lots of photos so we can see the reality of this terrible legacy. KZ

Through the 1950s, Africans and Native Americans Were Kept In Zoos As Exhibit

By M.B. David
Political Blindspot, February 13, 2013

Throughout the early 20th century, Germany held what was termed a, “Peoples Show,” or Völkerschau. Africans were brought in as carnival or zoo exhibits for passers-by to gawk at.

Throughout the late 19th century, and well into the 1950′s, Africans and in some cases Native Americans, were kept as exhibits in zoos. Far from a relic from an unenlightened past, remnants of such exhibits have continued in Europe as late as the 2000′s.

Brussels, Belgium in 1958

Only decades before, in the late 1800′s, Europe had been filled with, “human zoos,” in cities like Paris, Hamburg, Antwerp, Barcelona, London, Milan, and Warsaw. New York too saw these popular exhibits continue into the 20th century. There was an average of 200,000 to 300,000 visitors who attended each exhibition in each city.

Carl Hagenbeck of Germany ran exhibits of what he called, “purely natural,” populations, usually East Asian Islanders, but in 1876, he also sent a collaborator to the Sudan to bring back, “wild beasts and Nubians.” The traveling Nubian exhibit was a huge success in cities like Paris, London, and Berlin.

The World’s Fair, in 1889 was visited by 28 million people, who lined up to see 400 indigenous people as the major attraction. The 1900 World’s Fair followed suit, as did the Colonial Exhibitions in Marseilles (1906 and 1922) and in Paris (1907 and 1931) which displayed naked or semi-naked humans in cages. Paris saw 34 million people attend their exhibition in six months alone.

Just four years shy of the 20th century, the Cincinnati Zoo kept one hundred Sioux Native Americans in a mock village at the zoo for three months.

Ota Benga at Bronx Zoo

In 1906, the amateur anthropologist Madison Grant, who was the head of the New York Zoological Society, put a Congolese pygmy Ota Benga, on display at the Bronx Zoo in New York City. The display was in the primate exhibit, and Ota was often made to carry around chimpanzees and other apes. Eugenicist and zoo director William Hornaday labeled Ota, “The Missing Link.” The public flocked to see the display.

Benga shot targets with a bow and arrow, wove twine, and wrestled with an orangutan. Although, according to the New York Times, “few expressed audible objection to the sight of a human being in a cage with monkeys as companions,” controversy erupted as black clergymen in the city took great offense. “Our race, we think, is depressed enough, without exhibiting one of us with the apes,” said the Reverend James H. Gordon, superintendent of the Howard Colored Orphan Asylum in Brooklyn. “We think we are worthy of being considered human beings, with souls.”

In 1906, the Bronx Zoo kept Ota Benga on a human exhibit. The sign outside of her fenced in area of the primate exhibit read, “Age, 23 years. Height, 4 feet 11 inches. Weight, 103 pounds. Brought from the Kasai River, Congo Free State, South Central Africa, by Dr. Samuel P. Verner. Exhibited each afternoon during September.”

These sorts of, “human zoos,” continued even later. The Brussels 1958 World’s Fair kept a Congolese village on display. Even as late as April 1994, an Ivory Coast village was kept as part of an African safari in Port-Saint-Père (Planète Sauvage), near Nantes, France.

In Germany, as late as 2005, Augsburg’s zoo in Germany had similar exhibits. In August 2005, London Zoo also displayed humans wearing fig leaves, and in 2007, Adelaide Zoo housed people in a former ape enclosure by day. They were, of course, allowed to return home at night, unlike many of the earlier incarnations of these racist displays.

Many people console themselves with the belief that the racism of yesterday remains safely in the past. But the echoes of the, “human zoo,” into recent years show that this is far from the case. The racism of the past continues to bleed through into the present.

UNCOVERED: The Haunting ‘Human Zoo’ of Paris

Messy Nessy Chic, March 2, 2012

In the furthest corner of the Vincennes woods of Paris, lies the remains of what was once a public exhibition to promote French colonialism over 100 years ago and what we can only refer to today as the equivalent of a human zoo.

In 1907, six different villages were built in the Jardin d’Agronomie Tropicale, representing all the corners of the French colonial empire at the time– Madagascar, Indochine, Sudan, Congo, Tunisia and Morocco. The villages and their pavillions were built to recreate the life and culture as it was in their original habitats. This included mimicking the architecture, importing the agriculture and appallingly, inhabiting the replica houses with people, brought to Paris from the faraway territories.

The human inhabitants of the ‘exhibition’ were observed by over one million curious visitors  from May until October 1907 when it ended. It it estimated that between 1870 up until the 1930s, more than one and a half a billion people visited various exhibits around the world featuring human inhabitants.

In 1906, this Congolese replica “factory” was built in Marseille as part of a colonial exposition. Congolese families were also brought over to work in the factory. In February 2004 its remains were burnt down.

Today, the Jardin d’Agronomie Tropicale is treated as a stain on France’s history. Kept out of sight behind rusty padlocked gates for most of the 20th century, the buildings are abandoned and decaying, and the rare exotic plantations have long disappeared.

In 2006 the public was granted access to the gardens but few people actually visit at all. The entrance is marked by a 10 ft Asian inspired portico of rotting wood and faded red paint that stands like the ghost of a slain gatekeeper. Visitors can instantly feel a sense of anxiety upon entering and quickly develop an understanding that this is not a place that the French are proud of. A hundred years on and there’s still an eerie presence of ladies clutching sun parasols and men in bowler hats arriving, eager to see the show on the other side of this now crumbling colonnade.

Only some of the pathways remain clear of overtaking nature and they all lead to various vandalized monuments, condemned houses with danger signs and abandoned paraphernalia that you can’t make any sense of.

A doorway to one of the houses at the Indonesian pavillion

The Moroccan pavillion

I sneaked over a fence into this eerie structure hidden at the back of the park, a workshop where scientists and students came to study tropical wood brought back from the colonies. 

More than thirty-five thousand men, women and children left their homelands during the high noon of Imperialist Europe and took part in ‘exotic spectacles’ held in major cities like Paris, London and Berlin. Entire families recruited from the colonies were placed in replicas of their villages, given mock traditional costumes and paid to put on a show for spectators. An opportunity to demonstrate the power of the West over its colonies, the expositions became a regular part of international trade fairs and encouraged a taste for exoticism and remote travel.

Europeans gawked at bare-breasted African women and were entertained by re-enactments of “primitive life” in the colonies. Here, anthropologists and researchers could observe whole villages of tribespeople and gather physical evidence for their theories on racial superiority.

The Tunisian pavilion. 

While the villagers had come to Paris of their own free will and were paid to be on display, they were equally oppressed, exploited and degraded. The distinction between person and specimen was blurred. They were not guests here. They were nameless faces on the other side of a barrier.

When the Exposition Tropicale ended its four month run in October 1907, it is unknown how many of the participants returned home safely. Villagers were enticed by lecherous agents or even mislead by their own village chiefs into joining circus-like troupes that toured internationally. From Marseille to New York, their vulnerability in a capitalist world was exploited every step of the way.

Some would eventually find their way home after a few years, but others would never make it. If they didn’t fall victim to diseases unknown to them; smallpox, measles, tuberculosis; they would die of adversity in an alien world.

There are rumors that one building, the Indochine pavillion, will be refurbished to function as a small museum and research centre. It may be an intelligent solution to a touchy subject. If the French government destroyed the gardens, there would be accusations of trying to cover up the past. If they were fully restored, it might be construed as a commemoration to a France’s once very sinister use of power.

And so the garden remains, hauntingly beautiful; a neglected embarrassment.

Gardeners stopped coming a long time ago. Wild and verdant, mutations of untamed tropical plants plucked from their homelands are left to fester in a junkyard of French colonial history. They are the ghosts of this purgatory, waiting for a ticket home.

Address: Jardin d’Agronomie Tropicale, 45 bis Avenue de la Belle Gabrielle, 75012 Paris. RER station: Nogent-sur-Marne

Sarah’s Story: A Colonial Showpiece

The primitiveness of putting the ‘primitive’ on display began during the modern period when explorers like Columbus and Vespucci lured natives back to Europe from their homelands. To prove the discovery of exotic lands, the natives were flaunted and paraded like trophies. But what began as curious awe deteriorated into an era of racial superiority and the invention of the savage.

A 20 year-old girl from South Africa known as Sarah “Saartjie” Baartman would be emblematic of the dark era that gave rise to the popularity of human zoos. She was recruited by an exotic animal-dealer on location in Cape Town and traveled to London in 1810 to take part in an exhibition. The young woman went willingly under the pretense that she would find wealth and fame. Exhibitors were looking for certain qualities in their ‘exotic’ recruits that either coincided with the European beauty ideal or offered unexpected novelty. Sarah had a genetic characteristic known as steatopygia; a protuberant buttocks and elongated labia.

She found herself being exhibited in cages at sideshow attractions dressed in tight-fitting clothing that violated any cultural norms of decency at the time. A few years later she came to Paris where racial anthropologists poked and prodded and made their theories. Sarah eventually turned to prostitution to support herself and drank heavily. She had been in Europe for only four years.

When she died in poverty, Sarah’s skeleton, sexual organs and brain were put on display at the Museum of Mankind in Paris where they remained until 1974. In 2002, President Nelson Mandela formally requested the repatriation of her remains. Nearly two hundred years after she had stood on deck and watched her world disappear behind her, Sarah Baartman finally went home, where the air smelled of buchu and mint, and the veld called out her name.

Additional images via Les Expositions universelles de ParisInvisible ParisShane Lynam and Olivier Aubert

OF OTHER RACES IN HUMAN ZOOS AND THE FALLACY OF WHITE/CAUCASIAN MENTAL SUPREMACY

Trip Down Memory Lane
October 1, 2012

It is general historical knowledge that African civilization came before the rise of caucasian race. However, the Eurocentric historians have always tried to make Africa and other human race to seem inferior to the caucasian race. The historical achievement of civilizations like both the Egyptian and Nubian civilization were hidden until recently historians like Cheikh Anta Diop, Ivan Sertima, Amiri Baraka, Molefi Kete Asante,Rashidi Runoko and others came in to reveal it to the world.Africans and people from other race contributed immensely in literature,science,astrology,music and other forms of art. Despite all this, with the rise of caucasian race in human race recently in history, they rather saw all other race especially Africans (blacks)  as primitive beings whose mental capacity are akin to that of apes or monkeys. So in other to erroneously satisfy their myopic theory of Darwinism human zoos were erected across Europe to make mockery of other human race.
The Europeans/caucasians claim American native Indians were cannibals ( a word coined by Christopher Columbus upon landing in new world) but cannibalism has been well-known in Europe for many years.

In Gough’s Cave, England, remains of human bones and skulls from approximately 15,000 years ago, suggest that cannibalism took place amid the people living in the cave.

Archaeologists can trace back evidence to about 7,000 years ago proving mass cannibalism in Germany – even children and unborn babies were on the menu.

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/evidence-of-mass-cannibalism-uncovered-in-germany-1835341.html.

The Gruesome History of Eating Corpses as Medicine

Read more: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/The-Gruesome-History-of-Eating-Corpses-as-Medicine.html#ixzz285b4gCdR

Eating other humans’ flesh and drinking their blood for medicinal purposes is well-documented:

Take when Pope Innocent VIII was on his deathbed in 1492, his doctors used vampire-like technique on 3 boys and had the pope drink their blood. The boys were bled until they died, and the pope died as well. Of course this was the same time that Columbus “discovered” America and coined the word “cannibal.”

The medical journal, The Lancet, published an article regarding corpse medicine. The article recounts notable doctors of 1600s England digging up bodies to use the bones for medicine. Noted in the article was the fact the human body was widely acknowledged as the “therapeutic agent”.

Medical treatments included ingesting flesh, bone, or blood, along with a variety of moss sometimes found on human skulls right up until the late 18th century. Use of medicines made from blood and other human body parts was widespread in Europe. Fresh blood was used as a cure for epilepsy and other body parts to treat a variety of diseases, including arthritis, warts, diseases of the reproductive system, sciatica, and even teenage acne…

One of the books this stuff is documented in Cannibal The History of People Eaters.

It’s quite a conceit to present the cultures of non-white peoples as deviant and hold them and their cultures up to spectacle….whilst whites and European cultures are quarantined as inherently sound and their cultures as apexes of civilization.

Europeans had no ethical or moral issues at all with cannibalism – for example – until the 19th century. The bodies of other humans was just another natural product available for use and recycling.

Candles made of human fat were used up until the 1880s.

King Charles II of England sipped ‘The King’s Drops’, a powder mix of human skull with alcohol.
Thomas Willis, a 17th-century pioneer of brain science, would routinely brewed a drink for apoplexy (or bleeding), that mingled powdered human skull and chocolate.

Did other Europeans consider these practices deviant and depraved? Was the King of England or respectable English scholar merely ‘racially primitive’ because of the liquids they drank?

http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195181821.001.0001/acprof-9780195181821-chapter-7

Of course not, after all, a French Franciscan monk of the same time was making marmalade out of human blood, and even wrote a recipe for it. The instructions, in part, read like this:
“stir it to a batter with a knife…pound it…through a sieve of finest silk.”

Jam-making aside, the eating of human bodies could also be used as military weapon – something that was traditionally buried, down-played and ignored – in the way that rape in war has been hidden or dismissed.
Take the Crusades, for example. The 1st Crusade in particular, and the Siege of Maarat, or Ma’arra, in 1098 in the city of Ma’arrat al-Numan, in what is modern-day Syria. An eyewitness of the siege wrote, “In Ma’arra our troops boiled pagan adults in cooking-pots; they impaled children on spits and devoured them grilled.” The chronicler Albert of Aix seemed to rank Muslims lower than dogs when he wrote, “Not only did our troops not shrink from eating dead Turks and Saracens; they also ate dogs!”

Guibert of Nogent, in his work Historia Hierosolymitana noted that the Christian barbarians (or Tafurs) were feared by the Muslims because of their cannibalism. For that reason, on at least one occasion, the Tafurs publicly “roasted the bruised body of a Turk over a fire as if it were meat for eating, in full view of the Turkish forces.”

Guibert notes that the Franks (Germanic clans) also practiced cannibalism, but they did so “in secret and as rarely as possible.”

http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(08)60907-1/fulltext

With all these past,the blacks and people of other race did not see Europeans as primitive and of inferior brains to use against them. In fact, when Africa had introduced way of writing the white race was oblivious of how to communicate through letters. Yet when the whites of yore got the opportunity of enlightenment it did not take them long to see all other human race as inferior to them even when some of them were aware that that perception was and is still wrong. They rather went on to introduce human zoos to shame fellow humankind.

Advertising post for human zoo in Germany

Human Zoos

Human zoos were 19th and 20th century public exhibits of people like a museum pieces (also known as “an ethnological exposition”, “the exhibition of human beings” and “a Negro Village”)- mostly non-Europeans. Africans, Asians, Indigenous people and many others were often caged and displayed in a makeshift ‘natural habitat’. These human displays were very popular and shown at world fairs where they drew Europeans and Americans in their tens of millions – from Paris to Hamburg, London to New York, Moscow to Barcelona.

The Edmond Pezon’s menagerie: this is Zizi-Bamboula.

This curiosity regarding indigenous races had a history at least as long as colonialism and Columbus brought indigenous Americans from his voyages in the New World to the Spanish court in 1493. Human zoos and exhibitions of exotic populations became common in the 1870s in the midst of the New Imperialism period. They could be found in many places including Hamburg, Antwerp, Barcelona, London, Milan, New York, and Warsaw, and hundreds of thousands of people visited these exhibitions.

Negro Village

The goal of that was to demonstrate people born in Asia and Africa, and show their primitive and sometimes even savage lifestyle. Such zoos, especially in Germany, had strongly pronounced racist implication, which was taken from the Social Darwinism currents, when people from Africa were often demonstrated together with monkeys in order to show their common origin.

This is the settlement of Iroquoises. People wear their traditional costumes and headwears decorated with feathers.

In 1874, Carl Hagenbeck, a German merchant in wild animals and entrepreneur of many Europeans zoos, decided to exhibit Samoan and Sami people (Laplanders) as ‘purely natural’ populations. In 1876, he sent a collaborator to the Egyptian Sudan to bring back some wild beasts and Nubian people.

Hagenback`s human zoo “Sudanese troupe”

The Nubian exhibit was very successful in Europe and toured Paris, London, and Berlin. He also dispatched an agent to Labrador to secure a number of ‘Esquimaux’ (Inuit) from the settlement of Hopedale; these Inuit were exhibited in his Hamburg Tierpark.

A family of Labradorean Eskimo is in Hamburg or Berlin Zoo, 1880. They adopted Christianity and took German names. Men’s name was Abraham Ulrikab, his wife’s name was Ulrika, they had two children — Sarah and Mary, their nephew’s name was Tobias; there were another family with them. It was the way to earn money for them; the family was to clear off debts and needed money. All of them died within five months because of smallpox which they didn’t have immunity to. Abraham Ulrikab made notes writing the Inuktuit language; he described all the humiliations that his family underwent.

Geoffroy de Saint-Hilaire, director of the Jardin d’acclimatation, decided in 1877 to organize two ethnological spectacles that presented Nubians and Inuit. That year, the audience of the Jardin d’acclimatation doubled to one million.

African child in Negro village being fed like a monkey

Between 1877 and 1912, approximately thirty ethnological exhibitions were presented at the Jardin zoologique d’acclimatation.

Native people of Suriname were displayed in the International Colonial and Export Exhibition in Amsterdam held behind the Rijksmuseum in 1883.

Ceylonese citizens were also shown at such exhibitions.

Both the 1878 and the 1889 Parisian World Fairs presented a Negro Village (village nègre). Visited by 28 million people, the 1889 World Fair displayed 400 indigenous people as the major attraction.

The idea of “a Negro Village” was the most popular in Germany, where the ideas of Social Darwinism were widely spread and accepted by many people. Even Otto Bismarck visited “the Negro Village” exhibition.

Negro Village

The 1900 World Fair presented tin nude in cages, often nude or semi nude.

“Negro Villages” are at the exhibitions in France.

Parisian world fair

The 1931 exhibition in Paris was so successful that 34 million people attended it in six months, while a smaller counter-exhibition entitled The Truth on the Colonies, organized by the Communist Party, attracted very few visitors.

This is a Somalia village, which was demonstrated in Luna Park, St. Petersburg.

Negro Village

One of the first modern public human exhibitions was PT Barnum’s exhibition of Joice Heth on February 25, 1835. Joice Heth (c.1756–February 19, 1836) was an African American slave. In 1835 toward the end of her life, blind and almost completely paralysed (she could talk, and had some ability to move her right arm), she was purchased by PT Barnum. He began his career as a showman by exhibiting her, claiming she was the 160-yearold nurse of George Washington. She died the next year; in all probability no more than 80 years old.

The Chinese Siamese twins Chang and Eng Bunker.

A caricature of Saartjie Baartman, called theHottentot Venus. Born to a Khoisan family, she was displayed in London in the early 19th century. Saartjie Baartman of the Namaqua, referred to as ‘the Hottentot Venus’, who was displayed in
London until her death in 1815.

This is Tuareg.

During the 1850s, Maximo and Bartola, two microcephalic children from Central America, were exhibited in the US and Europe under the names ‘Aztec Children’ and ‘Aztec Lilliputians’.

Five Indians from the Kawesqar tribe (Tierra del Fuego, Chili) were kidnapped in 1881 and transported to Europe to be demonstrated in a human being zoo. All of them died a year later.
The whole thing was staged and played to Western stereotypes:

African mother and child in negro village

  • Arabs were like in “Thousand and One Nights” from the 1300s.
  • American Indians were like in the cowboy-and-Indian books of the time.
  • South Sea Islanders were bare breasted and carefree – even though, as Gauguin discovered, that world was long gone if it ever was (but painted it anyway).
  • Black Africans were shown as savage hunters, spears and all, just a step above wild animals – even though most Africans of the time were herders and farmers. One show was called “Gorilla Negroes”.

      The picture of Australian aborigines, the Crystal Palace, 1884.

The Pygmies at the St Louis fair, on the other hand, liked to smoke cigars and wear top hats, which screwed up the show’s racist evolutionary ranking.

Pygmies were made to dance during numerous exhibitions to entertain visitors.

Some feared for the safety of white women. In both Victorian England and Nazi Germany, some opposed the shows out of fear of race mixing between black men and white women.

Africans shooting archery in 1904 St Louis “Savage Olympics Exhibition”

Human Zoo

see: http://www.scotsman.com/news/international/zoo-sparks-row-over-tribesmen-props-for-animals-1-715365

At least as late as 2005 you could still see “African tribesmen” in grass skirts at a Western zoo (in Augsburg, Germany). But since the 1930s such things have become uncommon: film, and later television and cheap air travel, were able to give Westerners a much richer-seeming (but not always truer) experience of native peoples.

It is a very shameful period for Europeans, when people earned money kidnapping other people and showing them to others. So, the last African disappeared from the European Zoos in 1936. However, the last “Negro Village” was demonstrated at the Expo exhibition in Brussels in 1958.

Ota Benga at Bronx zoo see: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xedc7pLWyRI&feature=player_embedded
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z6WJPiZhmZQ&feature=player_embedded

MODERN HUMAN ZOO

As if this human zoo racism against blacks are over, recently in India the govt decided to use the tribal hinterland black Andamanese for human zoo to generate tourist attraction to their country. Though the intended human zoo did not materialized but some Indians force Andamanese to dance for tourist in their nakedness for money.

Andamanese girls that were being used as human zoo by the Indian govt.

A human zoo, which features women from a protected tribe dancing for tourists in exchange for food, opened on India’s Andaman Islands.

Jarawa tribal women — some of them naked — are being lured to dance and sing for tourists and to live in a “Jarawa Habitat”.

Under Indian laws designed to protect ancient tribal groups susceptible to outside influence and disease, photographing or coming into contact with the Jarawa and some of the Andaman aborigines had been banned, but the Indian government seems to be looking the other way on the Human Zoo.

Tourists shoot photos and video of a ancient tribe, an indigenous people belonging to the Indian Andaman Islands, and treat them like animals in a zoo.

The tribe, thought to have been among the first people to migrate successfully from Africa to Asia, lives a nomadic existence in the lush, tropical forests of the Andamans in the Indian Ocean.

India’s Tribal Affairs Minister Sanjay Krishnabba Chandra said that they are looking into the situation to make sure that all the women in the zoo are treated properly – feed, bathed and cared for on a daily basis.

SeMany Indian citizens are outraged about the Human Zoo.

“It’s deplorable. You cannot treat human beings like beasts for the sake of money. Whatever kind of tourism is that, I totally disapprove of that and it is being banned also,”  an Indian MP added. “(source:ehttp://weeklyworldnews.com/headlines/42430/human-zoo-opens-in-india/) the story below:

‘Human Zoo’ Allowed Tourists to Throw Bananas at Islanders

What horrible human outrages does this monstrous world of ours bring today? Video of a “human zoo” in India’s Andaman Islands, featuring women from the Jarawa tribe, ordered to dance for tourists in exchange for food.

The video, first published by Guardian sister paper The Observerapparently depicts a bribed policeman ordering the women to dance for tourists “on safari.”

“Dance,” the policeman instructed. The girls in front of him, naked from the waist up, obeyed. A tourist’s camera panned round to another young woman, also naked and awkwardly holding a bag of grain in front of her. “Dance for me,” the policeman commanded.

To shield tribes like the Jarawa from disease and culture shock, Indian laws ban outsiders from seeking out or photographing the people. Nonetheless,

On the day the Observer visited, when the gates opened the cameras immediately started clicking. Tourists threw bananas and biscuits to the tribes people at the roadside, as they would to animals in a safari park

This tribe began to have a contact with the modern world only at the end of XX century. Its population is about 300-400 people, locals and tourists are banned from contacting them, take their pictures and videos, otherwise, the offender will be arrested and brought to justice.However, for a bribe – about $ 560 – tourists may violate these prohibitions, and local police turn a blind eye to it.

[T]he price of a day out with the Jarawa: up to 15,000 rupees (£185) to buy off the police, another 10,000-15,000 rupees on top of that for a car, a driver, gifts for the Jarawa, and biscuits and snacks. Contact is guaranteed, he promised.

Believed to be the descendants of the first humans to migrate successfully from Africa to Asia, there are roughly 400 Jarawa alive today, the AFP reports. They began “to venture out of the jungle in any numbers” in 1998, prompting the government to create “a buffer zone” for the tribe in 2007. “Forced coexistence would be total genocide for them,” according to Anstice Justin, head of the region’s Anthropological Survey of India.

Though officials mostly agree that outrage is the appropriate response to this video (even those opposed to the protection laws don’t want this scandal attached to them) there is some dissent over the appropriate amount of outrage. We return to the AFP:

“Before the 2004 tsunami, people might have forced them to dance and there may have been some much smaller violations since then,” Justin said by telephone from the capital Port Blair.

“The video appears to be six to seven years old when Jarawas remained unclothed but now they wear dresses in public,” Director-General of Police Samsher Deol said.

Andamanese tribal people at the beach watch this:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Frw3O8R6-vg&feature=player_embedded&oref=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.chillhour.com%2Fmodern-human-zoo

The bribed officer from the video will reportedly “have his future promotion delayed by six months” as punishment.

It is about time every black person living everywhere should be given a needed protection and right to their dignified way of living without exploitation by the governments that control their lives. These Andamanese are the original inhabitants of India before the so-called white Indian Skin came to occupy their land. They must be seen as the bonafide owners of the land and if no compensation is given to them by the Indian government,their right to a dignified living must not be exploited through human zoo experimentation in the name of tourism. It is so racist and disrespectful to this ancient tribe of African origin.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Human zoo (disambiguation).

An ad for a “Peoples Show” (Völkerschau) in Stuttgart (Germany), 1928

Human zoos, also called ethnological expositions, were 19th- and 20th-century public exhibits of humans, usually in a so-called natural or primitive state. The displays often emphasized the cultural differences between Europeans of Western civilization and non-European peoples or other Europeans with a lifestyle deemed primitive. Some of them placedindigenous people in a continuum somewhere between the great apes and humans of European descent. Ethnological expositions have since been criticized as highly degrading and racist.

First human zoos

A caricature of Saartjie Baartman, called the Hottentot Venus. Born to a Khoisanfamily, she was displayed in London in the early 19th century.

In the Western Hemisphere, one of the earliest-known zoos, that of Moctezuma in Mexico, consisted not only of a vast collection of animals, but also exhibited humans, for example, dwarves, albinos and hunchbacks.[1]

During the Renaissance, the Medicis developed a large menagerie in the Vatican. In the 16th century, CardinalHippolytus Medici had a collection of people of different races as well as exotic animals. He is reported as having a troup of so-called Barbarians, speaking over twenty languages; there were also Moors, Tartars, Indians, Turks and Africans.[2]

Maximo and Bartola, c. 1867

One of the first modern public human exhibitions was P.T. Barnum‘s exhibition ofJoice Heth on February 25, 1835[3] and, subsequently, the Siamese twins Chang and Eng Bunker. These exhibitions were common in freak shows. However, the notion of the human curiosity has a history at least as long as colonialism. For instance, Columbus brought indigenous Americans from his voyages in the New World to the Spanish court in 1493.[4] Another famous example was that ofSaartjie Baartman of the Namaqua, often referred to as the Hottentot Venus, who was displayed in London and France until her death in 1815.

During the 1850s, Maximo and Bartola, two microcephalic children from El Salvador, were exhibited in the US and Europe under the names Aztec Children and Aztec Lilliputians.[5] However, human zoos would become common only in the 1870s in the midst of the New Imperialism period.

1870s to World War II

Ota Benga, a human exhibit, in 1906. Age, 23 years. Height, 4 feet 11 inches (150cm).
Weight, 103 pounds (47kg).
Brought from the Kasai River, Congo Free State, South Central Africa, by Dr. Samuel P. Verner.
Exhibited each afternoon during September.
a sign outside the primate house at theBronx Zoo, September 1906.[6]

In the 1870s, exhibitions of exotic populations became popular in various countries. Human zoos could be found in Paris, Hamburg, Antwerp, Barcelona, London, Milan, New York, and Warsawwith 200,000 to 300,000 visitors attending each exhibition. In Germany, Carl Hagenbeck, a merchant in wild animals and future entrepreneur of many European zoos, decided in 1874 to exhibit Samoan and Sami people as “purely natural” populations. In 1876, he sent a collaborator to the Egyptian Sudan to bring back some wild beasts andNubians. The Nubian exhibit was very successful in Europe and toured Paris, London, and Berlin. In 1880, he also dispatched an agent to Labrador to secure a number of Esquimaux (Eskimo / Inuit) from the moravian mission of Hebron; these Inuit were exhibited in his Hamburg Tierpark.

Geoffroy de Saint-Hilaire, director of the Jardin d’acclimatation, decided in 1877 to organize two ethnological spectacles that presented Nubians and Inuit. That year, the audience of the Jardin d’acclimatation’ doubled to one million. Between 1877 and 1912, approximately thirty ethnological exhibitions were presented at the Jardin zoologique d’acclimatation.

Both the 1878 and the 1889 Parisian World’s Fair presented a Negro Village (village nègre). Visited by 28 million people, the 1889 World’s Fair displayed 400 indigenous people as the major attraction. The 1900 World’s Fair presented the famous diorama living in Madagascar, while the Colonial Exhibitions in Marseilles (1906 and 1922) and in Paris (1907 and 1931) also displayed humans in cages, often nude or semi-nude.[7] The 1931 exhibition in Paris was so successful that 34 million people attended it in six months, while a smaller counter-exhibition entitled The Truth on the Colonies, organized by the Communist Party, attracted very few visitors—in the first room, it recalled Albert Londres andAndré Gide‘s critics of forced labour in the colonies. Nomadic Senegalese Villages were also presented.

In 1883, native people of Suriname were displayed in the International Colonial and Export Exhibition in Amsterdam, held behind the Rijksmuseum.

In the late 1800s, Carl Hagenbeck organized exhibitions of indigenous populations from various parts of the globe. He staged a public display in 1886 of Sinhaleseautochthones from the Indian subcontinent. In 1893/1894, he also put together an exhibition of Sami/Lapps in Hamburg-Saint Paul.

At the 1901 Pan-American Exposition [8] and at the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition, where Little Egypt performed bellydance, and where the photographersCharles Dudley Arnold and Harlow Higginbotham took depreciative photos, presenting indigenous people as catalogue of “types,” along with sarcastic legends.[9]

In 1896, to increase the number of visitors, the Cincinnati Zoo invited one hundred Sioux Native Americans to establish a village at the site. The Sioux lived at the zoo for three months.[10]

Ad for an 1893/1894 ethnological exposition of Lapps in Hamburg-Saint Paul

In 1904, Apaches, Igorots (from the Philippines) and the famous Ota Benga were displayed, dubbed as “primitive”, at theSaint Louis World Fair in association with the 1904 Summer Olympics. The USA had just acquired, following the Spanish-American War, new territories such as Guam, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico, allowing them to “display” some of the native inhabitants.[11] According to the Rev. Sequoyah Ade,

“To further illustrate the indignities heaped upon the Philippine people following their eventual loss to the Americans, the United States made the Philippine campaign the centrepoint of the 1904 World’s Fair held that year in St. Louis, MI [sic]. In what was enthusiastically termed a “parade of evolutionary progress,” visitors could inspect the “primitives” that represented the counterbalance to “Civilisation” justifying Kipling‘s poem “The White Man’s Burden“. Pygmiesfrom New Guinea and Africa, who were later displayed in the Primate section of the Bronx Zoo, were paraded next to American Indians such as Apache warrior Geronimo, who sold his autograph. But the main draw was the Philippine exhibit complete with full size replicas of Indigenous living quarters erected to exhibit the inherent backwardness of the Philippine people. The purpose was to highlight both the “civilising” influence of American rule and the economic potential of the island chains’ natural resources on the heels of the Philippine-America War. It was, reportedly, the largest specific Aboriginal exhibit displayed in the exposition. As one pleased visitor commented, the human zoo exhibit displayed “the race narrative of odd peoples who mark time while the world advances, and of savages made, by American methods, into civilized workers.”[12]

In 1906, socialite and amateur anthropologist Madison Grant, head of the New York Zoological Society, had Congolese pygmy Ota Benga put on display at the Bronx Zoo in New York City alongside apes and other animals. At the behest of Grant, a prominent eugenicist, the zoo director William Hornaday placed Ota Benga displayed in a cage with the chimpanzees, then with an orangutan named Dohong, and a parrot, and labeled him The Missing Link, suggesting that in evolutionary terms Africans like Ota Benga were closer to apes than were Europeans. It triggered protests from the city’s clergymen, but the public reportedly flocked to see it.[6][13]

Ad for a Carl Hagenbeck show (1886)

Benga shot targets with a bow and arrow, wove twine, and wrestled with an orangutan. Although, according to the New York Times, “few expressed audible objection to the sight of a human being in a cage with monkeys as companions,” controversy erupted as black clergymen in the city took great offense. “Our race, we think, is depressed enough, without exhibiting one of us with the apes,” said the Reverend James H. Gordon, superintendent of the Howard Colored Orphan Asylum in Brooklyn. “We think we are worthy of being considered human beings, with souls.”[14]

New York Mayor George B. McClellan, Jr. refused to meet with the clergymen, drawing the praise of Dr. Hornaday, who wrote to him: “When the history of the Zoological Park is written, this incident will form its most amusing passage.”[14]

As the controversy continued, Hornaday remained unapologetic, insisting that his only intention was to put on an ethnological exhibit. In another letter, he said that he and Madison Grant, the secretary of the New York Zoological Society, who ten years later would publish the racist tract The Passing of the Great Race, considered it “imperative that the society should not even seem to be dictated to” by the black clergymen.[14]

On Monday, September 8, 1906, after just two days, Hornaday decided to close the exhibit, and Benga could be found walking the zoo grounds, often followed by a crowd “howling, jeering and yelling.”[14]

In 1925, a display at Belle Vue Zoo in Manchester, England, was entitled ‘Cannibals’ and featured black Africans depicted as savages.[15]

Legacy of human zoos

A modern replica of the 1914 Congovillage exhibition in Oslo (2014)

The concept of the human zoo has not completely disappeared. A Congolese village was displayed at the Brussels 1958 World’s Fair.[16] In April 1994, an example of an Ivory Coast village was presented as part of an African safari in Port-Saint-Père, near Nantes, in France, later called Planète Sauvage.[17]

An African village, intended as a craft and cultural festival, was held in Augsburg‘s zoo in Germany in July 2005 and subject to widespread criticism.[18] In August 2005, London Zoo displayed four human volunteers wearing fig leaves (and bathing suits) for four days.[19] In 2007, Adelaide Zoo ran a Human Zoo exhibit which consisted of a group of people who, as part of a study exercise, had applied to be housed in the former ape enclosure by day, but then returned home by night.[20] The inhabitants took part in several exercises, much to the amusement of onlookers, who were asked for donations towards a new ape enclosure. In 2007, Pygmy performers at the Festival of Pan-African Music were housed (although not exhibited) at a zoo in Brazzaville, Congo.[21]

In Mexican zoos, such as Guadalajara Zoo and most evidently at the well-known safari Africam Safari, located in Puebla, Puebla, Mexico; there are “African Villages displayed,[citation needed] with sculptures of Africans with a bone on their head cooking a white explorer,[citation needed] and there are even native African people working as exhibit in these safari parks.[citation needed]

See also

References

  1. Jump up^ Mullan, Bob and Marvin Garry, Zoo culture: The book about watching people watch animals, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Illinois, Second edition, 1998, p.32. ISBN 0-252-06762-2
  2. Jump up^ Mullan, Bob and Marvin Garry, Zoo culture: The book about watching people watch animals, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Illinois, Second edition, 1998, p.98. ISBN 0-252-06762-2
  3. Jump up^ Joice Heth
  4. Jump up^ “On A Neglected Aspect Of Western Racism” by Kurt Jonassohn, December 2000, Montreal Institute for Genocide and Human Rights Studies
  5. Jump up^ Roberto Aguirre, Informal Empire: Mexico And Central America In Victorian Culture, Univ. of Minnesota Press, 2004, ch. 4
  6. ^ Jump up to:a b “Man and Monkey Show Disapproved by Clergy”, The New York Times, September 10, 1906.
  7. Jump up^ On the 1931 Colonial Exposition in Paris
  8. Jump up^ See Charles Dudley Arnold‘s photo similar human displays had been seen of six men dressed in Native-American costume, in front and on top of a reconstruction of a Six-Nations Long House.
  9. Jump up^ Anne Maxell, “Montrer l’Autre: Franz Boas et les soeurs Gerhard”, in Zoos humains. De la Vénus hottentote aux reality shows, Nicolas Bancel, Pascal Blanchard, Gilles Boëtsch, Eric Deroo, Sandrine Lemaire, edition La Découverte (2002), pp. 331-339, in part. p. 333,
  10. Jump up^ Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden, Ohio Historical Society.
  11. Jump up^ Jim Zwick (March 4, 1996). “Remembering St. Louis, 1904: A World on Display and Bontoc Eulogy”. Syracuse University. Retrieved 2007-05-25.
  12. Jump up^ “The Passions of Suzie Wong Revisited, by Rev. Sequoyah Ade”. Aboriginal Intelligence. January 4, 2004.
  13. Jump up^ Bradford, Phillips Verner and Blume, Harvey. Ota Benga: The Pygmy in the Zoo. St. Martins Press, 1992.
  14. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Keller, Mitch (2006-08-06). “The Scandal at the Zoo”. New York Times. Retrieved 2008-07-07.
  15. Jump up^ Paul A. Rees, An Introduction to Zoo Biology and Management, Wiley-Blackwell, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester (West Sussex), 2011, p.44. ISBN 978-1-4051-9349-8
  16. Jump up^ (French) Cobelco. Belgium human zoo; “Peut-on exposer des Pygmées? [link broken]”. Le Soir. July 27, 2002.
  17. Jump up^ Barlet, Olivier and Blanchard, Pascal, “Le retour des zoos humains”, abridged in “Les zoos humains sont-ils de retour?”, Le Monde, June 28, 2005. (French)
  18. Jump up^ (English) (French) “Vers un nouveau zoo humain en Allemagne? (original text in English below the French translation)”. Indymedia. December 6, 2005.; “England Hacks Away at the Shaken EU”. Der Spiegel. June 6, 2005.; “A Different View of the Human Zoo”. Der Spiegel. June 13, 2005.; “Zoo sparks row over ‘tribesmen’ props for animals, by Allan Hall”. The Scotsman. June 8, 2005.; Critical analysis of the Augsburg human zoo (“Organizers and visitors were not racist but they participated in and reflected a process that has been called racialization: the daily and often taken-for-granted means by which humans are separated into supposedly biologically based and unequal categories”, etc.)
  19. Jump up^ London Zoo official website;“Humans strip bare for zoo exhibit”. BBC News. August 25, 2005. Retrieved January 5, 2010.;“Humans On Display At London’s Zoo”. CBS News. August 26, 2005.;“The human zoo? by Debra Saunders (a bit more critical)”. Townhall. September 1, 2005.
  20. Jump up^ . tvnz. January 12, 2007.
  21. Jump up^ BBC News (2007-07-13). “Pygmy artists housed in Congo zoo”. Retrieved2008-08-22.

Bibliography and films

  • Nicolas Bancel, Pascal Blanchard, Gilles Boëtsch, Eric Deroo, Sandrine Lemaire Zoos humains. De la Vénus hottentote aux reality shows, edition La Découverte(2002) 480 pages (French) – French presentation of the book here [1] ISBN 2-7071-4401-0
  • Anne Dreesbach: Colonial Exhibitions, ‘Völkerschauen’ and the Display of the ‘Other’, European History Online, Mainz: Institute of European History, 2012, retrieved: June 6, 2012.
  • The Couple in the Cage. 1997. Dir. Coco Fusco and Paula Eredia. 30 min.
  • Régis Warnier, the film Man to Man. 2005.
  • “From Bella Coola to Berlin”. 2006. Dir. Barbara Hager. 48 minutes. Broadcaster—Bravo! Canada (2007).
  • “Indianer in Berlin: Hagenbeck’s Volkerschau”. 2006. Dir. Barbara Hager. Broadcaster—Discovery Germany Geschichte Channel (2007).
  • Alexander C. T. Geppert, Fleeting Cities. Imperial Expositions in Fin-de-Siècle Europe (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010).
  • Sadiah Qureshi, Peoples on Parade: Exhibitions, Empire and Anthropology in Nineteenth-Century Britain (2011).

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