Tazim or Reverence

Tazim is the outcome of certain fine feelings, such as taqwa (Allah-consciousness), love, humility, appreciation of value, and sensitivity of the heart that are born of faith. The essence of Islam can be described in the two following concise notions:

Tazim li-emrillah – that is, carrying out the commands of Allah with meticulousness and respect.

b. Shafkat ala khalkillah – showing mercy and compassion towards created beings out of deference to their Creator.

The greatest of etiquette is to show reverence for Almighty Allah. And the best and strongest sign of this is worship. Later it is to approach other beings with respect according to the degree of their closeness to Allah. It is said in the Holy Qur’an:

‘As for those who honour Allah’s sacred rites, that comes from the taqwa in their hearts’(al-Hajj, 22:32)

The prayer (salat), the Holy Qur’an, the call to prayer, the sacrifice and other sacred trusts, along with the Ka’bah, the Hills of Safa and Marwa and other sacred sites are all considered to be the sacred rites of Islam. It is necessary to respect them without fault, and to show reverence for these during the times of Hajj and Umrah (The Greater and Lesser Pilgrimages to Mecca). Extending one’s feet towards the Ka’bah when sitting in front of it, lying down, vain and empty talk in those holy places, recitation of or listening to of the Qur’an in a disrespectful manner or putting it on the ground, are all offensive actions that will harm one’s feelings reverence and should be avoided.

Allah (glorious and majestic is He) has promised eternity to those of his servants who show respect and reverence for His Own Being, His prophets, saints and sacred trusts and has showered His mercy upon them constantly. As an example of this, the polytheists of Mecca were not punished as long as the Prophet (pbuh) was amongst them[1].

One of the best examples of the outcome of those who show reverence for Allah’s sacred rites is the story of the magicians of Pharaoh, told in the Qur’an. When the Pharaoh was left helpless in the face of the miracles shown by Mûsa (upon whom be peace), he gathered up the sorcerers of Egypt and promised them a great reward. However when the sorcerers embarked on the challenge with Mûsa -Aleyhisselâm-, they politely respected him and gave him the choice of first priority. This polite act must have pleased Almighty Allah for the seeds of love of guidance that was in their hearts began to develop at that point.

The miraculous manifestations that were displayed after that then became a means for them to be honoured with faith. And this was such faith, such perfect faith, that it responded with the sacrifice of their lives, without them compromising in the slightest…

Jalaluddin al-Rumi explains the secret of showing reverence for Allah’s sacred rites in this story:

‘Those sorcerers came to the creed of unity as a result of the courtesy, compliment and respect they showed for a great Prophet, a servant close to Allah, which they did by giving him first priority. At the same time however, they were also punished for attempting to compete with that great Prophet’.

Another famous event is the dream of Uthman Gazi as a consequence of his respect and reverence for the Holy Qur’an. This dream was interpreted by Shaykh Edebali who then married his daughter to him as a result. Thus it is possible to say that the Ottoman Empire, the longest running empire in the world, was founded on respect, reverence, love, courtesy and service to the Qur’an.

This exalted Empire, which drew its strength from the impressive respect it showed for the Holy Qur’an later came to be in charge of the sacred trusts and preserved them with unparalleled reverence. In addition they served the two Holy sites of Mecca and Madina with the respect and sacredness worthy of them in an appropriate manner for centuries.

Scenes of Virtue

According to a narration by Abu Huraira (r.a), the Prophet (pbuh) saw some phlegm laying in the direction of the Qibla in his Mosque. He turned towards the people and said:

“What is wrong with some of you that when you turn towards your Lord you spit. Would any of you like it if someone turned to you and spat in your face?”(Muslim, Masajid, 53).

***

When Junayd al-Baghdadi went to visit someone whom he was told was a person of piety, he saw him spit in the direction of Mecca. He left the man without having met him as he realised that the man was not a man who followed the sunnah (practices of the Prophet).

***

According to a narration by Anas (r.a) , whenever the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) would go to relieve himself, he would take off his ring that had engraved upon it ‘Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah’ out of respect for Allah (Abu Dawud, Taharah, 10/19).

***

During the Hajj, when the Messenger of Allah sighted the Ka’bah he raised his hand and prayed:

“O Allah. Increase the honour, greatness, nobility and majesty of this House. And also increase the honour, nobility, majesty, reverence and goodness of the ones who respect it during the Greater and Lesser Pilgrimages”(Ibn Sa’d, II, 173).

***

Allah says in the Holy Qur’an:

‘We have appointed the sacrificial animals for you as one of the sacred rites of Allah (one of the signs that remind you of Allah)’ (al-Hajj, 22:36)

Thus the animals sacrificed at the time of Qurban festival are also from the rites of Islam. This is why it is necessary to show respect for these animals for the sake of Allah. As with all forms of worship, the feelings of reverence and taqwa are of the essence. Allah says in the Holy Qur’an:

‘Their flesh and blood does not reach Allah but your taqwa does reach Him’(al-Hajj, 22:37)

The following event is a nice example of the respect shown for Allah by the Prophet when it came to the sacrifice of the animals for the festival of Qurbani.

The Muslims had arrived at Hudaybiya in order to perform the Lesser Pilgrimage, however the polytheists had prevented them from entering Mecca. The Companions had brought with them their sacrificial animals. Amongst these was a pedigree camel which had been taken as booty during the Battle of Badr. This camel had belonged to Abu Jahl and had a silver ring in its nose. When the camels were laid out to be sacrificed, this camel escaped and fled all the way to Mecca to the house of Abu Jahl. Amr ibn Anema went after it. Some of the people did not want to give it back to Amr. Later they offered to give 100 camels for this one camel. When the Prophet learned of this he said:
“If we had not decided that this camel be sacrificed we would have accepted your offer” (Wakidi, II, 64).

Here we can see the leniency and tolerance of the Prophet and also the reverence which he showed towards Allah. The Prophet was the most soft-hearted of people. It was not his habit to deny the lawful requests of people. Here too he would have granted this wish of the unbelievers had he not reverence for the sacred laws of Allah and His religion which were above all else. This is why he did not use a camel which had been designated to be sacrificed for Allah for any other purpose.

***

We can also take heed from the reverence shown by the friends of Allah on the matter of sacrificing animals.

Shaykh Sami Efendi and the late Mûsa Topbas Efendi (may their spirits be sanctified) were very sensitive when it came to sacrificing their animals. They would never sacrifice two animals in the same place. They would blindfold the animal. They would not allow the animals to be pushed and shoved to the place where they would be sacrificed but rather, if it was a small animal, request that they be carried kindly and gently. They would take care that the knife to be used was sharp. They would also request that the animal be cut in a way as to avoid hurting him and that the blood be allowed to flow fully. They would not sit down while the animal was being cut but rather wait standing until all of the blood had flowed from the animal.

All of this they did because the sacrificing of the animal is a form of worship that must be carried out consciously just like any other kind of worship. It is an expression of reverence for Allah, gratitude for the bounties He has given, and sacrificing all in His path. Allah Most High created animals for the benefit of the human being and left them at their service. All of the bounties that come from animals, such as their meat, milk, leather, and wool are a great favour for the servants of Allah.

To thank someone for a simple glass of water is a requirement of humanity. In that case we must be in a constant state of gratitude for the endless bounties that Allah has favoured us with. We must show reverence and act with delicacy, compassion and kindness when sacrificing these blessed animals that Allah has provided for our benefit.

***

Umar and Uthman (r.a) were in the habit of kissing the Blessed Copies of the Qur’an with reverence when they awoke every morning. Abdullah ibn Umar (r.a) also would take the holy script in his hands, kiss it with great reverence and hold it close to his chest, saying:

“This is the covenant of my Lord. This is the open decree of my Lord” (Kattani, II, 196-7).

Ikrima would also take the holy script, and rub it over his face and eyes. He would cry and say, as an expression of his reverence and love for almighty Allah:

“These are the words of my Lord, the words of my Lord” (Hakim, III, 272/5062).

***

In previous times, whenever anything written with ink was to be erased, it would be washed with water. Anas (r.a) has informed us that during the time of the four rightly Caliphs, the students who had washed the verses of the Qur’an would not throw the water out just anywhere. Rather they would let it accumulate in a special container and then pour it out by the side of a grave or in clean wells where nobody walked. They also used this water with the intention of healing. (Kettani, II, 200).

***

Before the Qur’an was revealed the people of Mecca were in the habit of hanging on the wall of the Ka’bah the names of seven poems that had been chosen for their exemplary eloquence and expressiveness. One of these poems belonged to Labid ibn Rabia. The works of Labid had been hung on the wall of the Ka’bah for years. When Labid became Muslim, he refused to write or speak another poem out of reverence and respect for the words of Allah. The last poem he wrote was when he (first) became Muslim:

‘Praise be to Allah that I too was able to put on that radiant garment of Islam before the appointed hour arrived’ (Ibn Abdilber, al-Istiab, III, 1335).

***

The prophet Sulayman (upon whom be peace) once sent a letter to Belqis, the queen of Sheba in order to invite her to Islam. Belqis, who was an idol-worshipper at that time, read the letter and said:

“O sirs and peers. A blessed letter has been sent to me. It is from Sulayman and it begins “In the Name of Allah, Most Merciful, Most Compassionate”…

Some scholars have said that it was out of this reverence and respect that she showed for the letter of Sulayman that she was blessed with becoming Muslim.

***

During the first half of his life Bishr-i Hafi, one of the friends of Allah, was a sinner. One day as he walking about drunk, he found a piece of paper with the words ‘In the Name of Allah’ written on it. He kissed it and placed it on his forehead (out of respect). He scented it with perfume and kept it in a nice place. That night, he saw a dream in which he heard a voice say:

“You have scented my Name with a beautiful scent, and you have showed it reverence and respect. Now, out of My own dignity and greatness, I am going to make your name be respected in both worlds”.

Upon this, Bishr awoke, repented and turned to Allah with loyalty and sincerity.[2]

***

Our forefathers, who used all means to show reverence for Allah Most High and His Messenger, made this a principle of their lives. When they wrote books they would not write the name of Allah openly, out of respect. Instead, they would abbreviate the name of Allah, such as bihi meaning by Him (by Allah) out of fear that their books may be placed on the ground.

***

According to narrations, one day Ibrahim ibn Edhem, one of the friends of Allah, went to see Abu Hanifa. The students who had gathered around Abu Hanifa, looked at Ibrahim ibn Edhem belittingly and strangely. Abu Hanifa noticed this and said to Ibrahim ibn Edhem:

“Please come in sir, you have honoured us”.

Ibrahim greeted him ashamedly and then turned to go. When Ibrahim ibn Edhem left, Abu Hanifa’s students asked him:

“What makes this person worthy of greatness and respect? How can someone like you call him ‘Sir’?

At this, Abu Hanifa gave the following reply which showed his feelings of reverence for the friends of Allah and which also expressed his own high degree of humility:

“He is constantly occupied with Allah, whereas we are merely occupied with idle talk and gossip”.

Abu Hanifa had sewn himself a garment out of precious and beautiful material that he used only to make the late night prayer. This he did out of his reverence for Allah, thereby showing us the importance of manners and the respect with which we must approach our worship.

***

Ahmad ibn Hanbal (may the mercy of Allah be upon him) would frequently visit the great saint, Bishr-i Hafi, in order to converse with him. He had become very devoted to him. One time his students said to him:

“O Imam! You are a scholar of the Qur’an and Sunnah. Despite this you often go and visit an ordinary man. Is this befitting of you?”

The great Imam gave the following reply:

“It is true that in the topics that you have mentioned I am better than him. However, he knows and recognises Almighty Allah better than I do”.

Thus Abu Hanifa and Ahmad ibn Hanbal both respected the Gnostic servants of Allah out of love and respect they felt for Allah, and tried to benefit from them by visiting them.

***

The desert of Sinai is a treacherous place that nobody had ever been able to succeed in crossing. Through the determination and decisiveness of Yavuz Sultan Selim, the Ottoman army entered that desert. A little while later, Yavuz got down from his horse and began to work. His soldiers were left in amazement and terror: “Why did the Sultan get down off his horse and begin to walk in this desert which is enough to boil the blood of horses”. They began to whisper amongst themselves and then they too got down from their horses and began to walk. The pashas asked Hasan Can who was the close friend of Yavuz:

“Please ask the Sultan, what sort of thing is this?”

Hasan Can, asked Yavuz, very curiously what it was that he was doing.

“Can’t you see Hasan? The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) is walking ahead of us. How can we remain seated on our horses when that Sultan of the Worlds is on foot?”

***

For the Ottomans the sign of the sultanate was not the crown, but taking up the sword. However much the word ‘crowne holder’ was used in official documents, the sultanate of a sultan took place through a pledge of alliance and the taking up of the sword. This continued up until the time of the 36th Ottoman Sultan, Sultan Wahiduddin.

After Istanbul was conquered, the site of the taking up of the sword took place at the tomb of Ayyub Al-Ansari. The ceremony that took place was called the “Kilic Alayi” (The Ceremony of the Sword).

The sword that the new Sultan took up was the sword that once belonged to Umar , and is now housed in the Topkapi Palace. This sword was placed upon the new Sultan by the most eminent and respected man of religion of that time. This would then be followed by a public prayer and congratulations for the Sultan. Eyub area was chosen for this ceremony because many Companions of the Prophet, both known and unknown, have been buried in this area which is considered sacred, just as the earth of the Blessed Harem in Mecca is sacred.

***

During the time of Murad IV, a flood occurred which resulted in two of the walls of the Ka’bah collapsing. The head architect, Ridwan Aga was immediately sent to Mecca to repair the damages. After identifying the problem, the architect refrained from using such words as ‘collapse’ and ‘crumpling’ about the Magnificent Ka’bah and instead expressed himself as follows:

“The such and such portions of the House of Allah have bowed down in prostration”.

He displayed his respect in a number of other ways too, such as taking the necessary precautions to prevent the animals that carried the equipment for the repair work, from dirtying that blessed place.

The reverence of the Ottomans for those blessed lands actually began when they came to power. During the journey of the pilgrimage, the first stop on the way from Europe to Asia was given the name ‘Harem’ (Sacred). This place still carries the same name even today and it was from that point that the manners necessary for arriving in the two sacred cities were assumed. No act on that journey expressing any manner of ignorance was allowed.

***

In the year 1678 Sair Nabi set off on a pilgrimage with certain statesmen. When the group approached Madina, Nabi was unable to sleep out of his excitement. When he saw a pasha heedlessly extend his foot in the direction of Madina, he was extremely affected by this act and subsequently began to write his famous epithet.

When they neared Madina close to the dawn prayer, Nabi heard the epithet he had written being read out from the minarets of the Prophet’s Mosque.

‘Beware of acting contrary to courtesy in this watchplace of Allah, and the station and blessed land of His beloved Prophet, Muhammed Mustafa (pbuh).

O Nabi, enter this place abiding by the rules of courtesy. This is the place that sacred souls follow like moths and a blessed station which the prophets have kissed’

Extremely excited at this situation the poet, Nabi, immediately went to find the caller to prayer:

“From whom did you learn this epithet and how? He asked him.

The caller to prayer replied:

“Last night the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said to me in my dream:

“A poet from my community called Nabi, is coming to visit me. This person loves me devotedly and is full of respect and reverence for me. Greet him with his own epithet from the minarets of my mosque, due to this love he has for me”.

So we complied with this command of the Prophet”

Nabi began to weep uncontrollably. He was crying and saying at the same time:

“So the Messenger of Allah said that I was from his community. The Prophet of Allah (pbuh) has accepted me into his community!….

***

The last Sultan of the Ottomans, Abdulaziz Han, was very devoted and full of reverence for the Prophet (pbuh). One day whilst he was lying in bed ill, pale and semi-conscious, he was told:

“Here is a petition from a the people of Madina”. Hearing this, the Sultan gathered all the strength that he could muster and said to his helpers:

“Take me downstairs immediately. Let me listen to the petition that has come from the Haramayn whilst standing. A request from the neighbours of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) cannot be listened to whilst seated and with my legs stretched out, contrary to courtesy”…

Whenever the post came from Madina, he would renew his ablution and kiss the letters saying “They have the blessed dust of Madina on them”. He would then hand them to the head scribe to open and read them”.

***

The respect shown by our forefathers to the scholars and practitioners of virtue is also worth mentioning. On the matter of showing respect to the friends of Allah, Ertugrul Gazi gave the following valuable advice to his son, Uthman Gazi and on his behalf as a means of showing direction for all those who would follow him:

“Look my son. You may hurt me, but you are never to hurt Shaykh Edebali. He is the spiritual sun of our people. He is what keeps us in balance, and his scales are not out even by a dirham.

You may defy me, but never defy him. If you defy me, I will be sad and hurt; but if you defy him, my eyes will no longer look at you, and even if they do they will not be able to see you.

My words are not for Edebali but for you. Let these words of mine be my last testament to you”.

***

Uthman Gazi gave the following advice to his son Orhan Gazi:

“…always show respect, act kindly and favourably to those righteous scholars, and possessors of virtue, who give spiritual strength to our government. If you hear of a mature scholar, a gnostic, or a saint who is in another country, politely and reverently invite him to our nation. Let your affairs of state and religion be guided through their blessings and support…”

***

During the reign of Orhan Gazi, a Gnostic friend of Allah called Geyikli Baba settled in the region of Uludag. Hearing of his fame, Orhan Gazi sent him an invitation. However, this friend of Allah, who was in the habit of wandering the mountains with his deer, refused the invitation. In addition he sent news saying: “Do not let Orhan come to see me, either”.

When Orhan Gazi was curious and asked the reason he received the following reply:

“The people of the Darwish order are people of foresight and people of the heart. It is a must that they act appropriately. If they act contrarily and stray from the right path, their prayers will not be accepted. You on the other hand are the trustees of the community. In this situation you are the frontier soldiers, whereas we are the soldiers of prayer. Victories are obtained through the mutual efforts of both the soldiers of prayer and the soldiers on the frontier. Just as the soldiers on the frontier equip themselves with knowledge of war and with courage in order to attain to this victory, so too the soldiers of prayer must of necessity keep themselves away from worldly inclinations and love. Thus I fear that the probable favours and offerings that will take place as a result of my coming to see you, will plant seeds of worldly love in the hearts of our dervishes and decrease their love for the afterlife. As a result, harm will come to both of us. My sultan! Know that when the time comes, we will be destined to see each other by the will of Allah”.

A little while later, Geyikli Baba came to Bursa and planted a plane tree in the courtyard of Orhan Gazi. They informed the Sultan of this, who immediately went there. Geyikli Baba said to him:

“We planted it for its blessings. As long as it stands, may the prayers of the dervishes be accepted for you and your offspring.”

Despite the conditions given to him previously, Orhan Gazi offered Geyikli Baba the region of Inegol and its surroundings. However, Geyikli Baba, who had no desire or need for any of these refused and said:

“Property belongs to Allah alone. He gives it to those who are worthy of it. We are not worthy”

The Sultan insisted. Geyikli Baba, fearing that to refuse what had been offered would be a type of pride said:

“Let that piece of land that lies this side of that hill be the courtyard of the dervishes”.

Refraining from erring in the case of showing respect for the friends of Allah and basing the foundations of the state on them, Orhan Gazi felt great happiness when Geyikli Baba accepted his offer and wished to kiss his hands; he did in fact kiss them repeatedly… later on his death, he had a tomb and mosque built for him. This tomb is still visited today.

History is witness that the reverence shown to the friends of Allah by the Ottoman sultans was the main reason for divine help being bestowed upon them.

***

The reverence shown to Akshamsaddin by Sultan Fatih Mehmed was very great. It was such that on the day that Istanbul was conquered, he said to those around him:

“The joy and peace you see in me today is not merely a result of this fortress being conquered. It is because a great and blessed friend of Allah, such as Akshamsaddin is with me in my time and in this place…”

***

Kemal Pasazade, a famous Ottoman scholar, used to be a very good soldier but later left the military and gave himself to his studies. According to some sources the reason he gave for this preference is as follows:

“We were on an expedition once with Sultan Bayazid. Next to the Sultan was his vizier Ibrahim Pasha, and the famous commander Evranosoglu. Evranosolgu was such a commander that no other commander was ahead of him, and nobody would sit in front of him in any gathering. But at that time a scholar came wearing a ragged old robe and sat above the commander. I was surprised that nobody said anything to prevent this situation and so I asked those near me:

“Who is this person who can pass and sit in front of a commander such as Evranosoglu?”.

“He is a scholar of virtue called Molla Lutfi”.

“What is his salary?” I asked.

“30 dirhems” they replied.

In amazement I said:

“How can a person with such a low salary be ahead of such a peerless commander?” Then they said to me:

“The scholars are shown such reverence due to the exaltedness of the religious knowledge that they possess. And at any rate, a pasha or commander who has been kneaded with faith, wisdom and courtesy would not wish it otherwise…”

After hearing this, I realised that I was not worthy of becoming one of those commanders, and with the feeling that it was only in the field of knowledge that my potential could become truly realised, I decided to leave the army and occupy myself with studying knowledge”.

After this choice Kemal Pashazade reached a state of knowledge in which he was known as being ‘Unique in his age’. After the death of Zenbilli Ali Efendi, he became the 9th Shayk al-Islam of the Ottoman State.

***

One day when Sultan Ahmad Han went to Uskudar, he encountered Aziz Mahmud Hudayi in the marketplace. Immediately getting down off his horse, he mounted the shaykh on it in his place, and began to walk behind him. The heart of Hudayi could not bear to let the great Sultan walk and so he said to him a little while later:

“I only mounted this horse so that the prayer of my shaykh and the command of my Sultan be obeyed”. He then got down off the horse. Thus the prayer of his shaykh Uftade came true:
“My son! May sultans walk behind you…”

***

Sultan Ahmad Han would show exceptional respect for Aziz Mahmud Hudayi and would not show any defect in his kindness to him. One day Aziz Mahmud Hudayi was sitting in the palace conversing with him. At one point they brought an urn and a bowl of water for Aziz Mahmud Hudayi to renew his ablution. The Sultan took the urn out of respect for his teacher and began to pour water for him. From behind the screen the mother of Sultan Ahmad Han was ready waiting with a towel for him. At one point the following thought occurred to the heart of the Sultan’s mother:

“If only I could see a miracle of Aziz Mahmud Hudayi”. Becoming aware of the thought that occurred to her as a bounty from Allah, Hudayi said:

“Is it not amazing? Some people expect to see wonders from us. Whereas what greater miracle can there be than the Caliph of the earth pouring water over my hands and his respected mother waiting on me with a towel in hand?”

***

In low spirits and depressed at the assault of the enemy bombardments of the harbour, Mirliva Jawad Pasha, the Commander for the stronghold of the Dardanelles, fell into a light sleep due to his excessive fatigue. In his dream he heard a voice call out to him softly:

“O Jawad! You show respect and reverence for the exalted speech of Allah Most High, and for this almighty Allah gives you good tidings of His help. Look out over the sea”.

When Jawad Pasha looked at the Dark Quay, he saw amongst an intensity of light the letters ‘kaf’ and ‘waw’. Then he awoke.

The next day as he was reading the Fatiha at the head of a grave he heard the voice from his dream once again:

“O Jawad! Lay the 26 mines that you have in stock over the sea”

He was full of excitement. He was faced with a spiritual mystery. Whilst he was thinking about how to solve it he saw a little way ahead of him, a radiant looking man who was observing him. That man approached the Pasha and asked him if there was a problem. Jawad Pasha told him everything that had happened. That friend of Allah explained the mystery with much depth of comprehension.

“My child! That light that you saw upon the sea is a sign of victory. It is an indication that the unbelievers will fail to take control of this land. The letters ‘kaf’ and ‘waw’ add up to 26, according to my calculations. In that case, laying those 26 mines over Dark Quay is going to be one of your greatest manoeuvres for victory.”

After these words that radiant man disappeared.

Normally the mines were required to be laid vertically over the harbour, but according to the dream they were to be laid out parallel to the land. Because this quay was an inactive part of the harbour, it was not strategically suitable to lay down the mines in this way.

In spite of all of this, Jawad Pasha immediately ordered that the mines be laid without delay, as a result of this spiritual opening. The Nusret Mine ship, under the command of Captain Hakki Bey, carried out this duty perfectly. Each mine that was laid out in the middle of the night was placed upon the sea to the accompaniment of the words ‘Allah is the Greatest’. That morning, having completed his duty, Captain Hakki Bey became a martyr after suffering a heart attack.

The next day, when the enemy battleships entered the harbour, the mines that had been laid out the previous night began to explode. The result was that these important enemy battleships became buried in the harbour, and the attack by the enemy was warded off.

In the 1930 edition of ‘Revue de Paris’ journal, Winston Churchill analysed this event:

“The main reason for so many people dying, for the heavy expense of the war, and for the sinking of 5000 trade and warships during World War I, were 26 mines that were swung on the end of a thin rope of steel laid down the previous night by the Turks.”

These are the unique blessings bestowed by Allah Most High in response to the respect and reverence shown for the Divine Speech…

***

In short, the most important matter that is commanded in the Qur’an after faith is performing good deeds. And what is desired after repentance is also performing good deeds. That is, the rising of the station of servants in the eyes of Allah and the acceptance of their repentance is connected to whether or not they perform good deeds. And performing good deeds consists of ‘tazim li-emrillah’ and ‘shafkat ala halkillah’, that is, reverently following Allah’s commands, and serving His creatures with mercy and compassion.

[1]. Al Anfal, 8:33

[2]. Attar, Tadhkirat al-Anbiya, Tahran, 1372, p 128)

Osman Nuri Topbas

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