Imam Malik (RA)
Once caliph Abū Ja‘far Mansūr visited Medina and he askedImam Mālik:
“While supplicating, should I turn my face to the prayer niche [and turn my back to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) or should I turn my face to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) (and turn my back to the prayer niche)?”
On this interrogation, Imam Mālik replied: “(O caliph!) Why do you turn your face from the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم), as he is the source of mediation for you and for your ancestor Adam (عليه السلام) on the Day of Judgement? Rather you should (pray and supplicate by) turning towards the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and seek his intercession so that he intercedes for you before Allah on the Day of Judgement.
Allah has declared:
“We sent not an apostle, but to be obeyed, in accordance with the will of Allah. If they had only, when they were unjust to themselves, come unto thee and asked Allah’s forgiveness, and the Messenger had asked forgiveness for them, they would have found Allah indeed Oft-returning, Most Merciful” (4:64)
This incident has been narrated by Qādī ‘Iyād in his ash-Shifā (2:596) with a sound chain of transmission.
al-Qadi `Iyad in al-Shifa (2:92-93) with a sound (sahih) chain, and also cited by
Samhudi in Khulasat al-Wafa,
Subkī in Shifā’-us-siqām fī ziyārat khayr-il-anām,
Qastallani in al-Mawahib al-laduniyya,
Ibn Jama`a in Hidayat al-salik, and
Haytami in al-Jawhar al-munazzam and Tuhfat al-zuwwar.
Ibn `Abd al-Hadi in al-Sarim al-munki p. 244.
Ibn Jama`a says in Hidayat al-salik (3:1381): “It is related by the two hafiz Ibn Bashkuwal and al-Qadi `Iyad in al-Shifa’ after him, and no attention is paid to the words of those who claim that it is forged purely on the basis of his idle desires.”
The words “he is the means (wasilat) of your and your father Adam’s forgiveness to Allah” are confirmed by the verses whereby the Prophet is witness over all communities and people including their Prophets (2:143, 3:81, 4:41, 33:7) as well as the sound hadith of his intercession over all prophets on behalf of all believers in Sahih al-Bukhari (Kitab al-tawhid).
Ibn Qunfudh al-Qusantini al-Maliki
Ibn Qunfudh (d. 810 H) says in his book Wasilat al-islam bi al-nabi `alayhi al-salat wa al-salam
[The Means to Islam With the Prophet, Peace be upon him]
(Beirut: Dar al-gharb al-islami, 1404/1984) p. 144-145:
The visit to his grave, Peace be upon him, is a Sunna from among the Sunnas of prophets, and an excellent action which is highly desirable. The Prophet said: “Whoso visits my grave, my intercession for him becomes guaranteed” and “Whoever [performs the Pilgrimage and then] visits me after my death, it is as if he visited me in my life.” His visit is a greatly profitable matter for seeking blessings by standing at his grave, and by praying in his mosque.
The order of priority is to send blessings upon him before greeting the mosque (tahiyyat al-masjid) and before approaching to greet him. It is permissible to say: “So-and-so sends his greetings to you.”
Ibn Wahb relates from Imam Malik: “When one greets the Prophet, let him face the grave not the Qibla, and let him not touch the grave with his hand nor raise his voice. The Prophet said: “A prayer in this mosque of mine [in Madina] is better than a thousand prayers in any other, except the Holy Mosque [in Mecca]” (Muslim). Its meaning is that prayer in the Prophet’s mosque is better than that in the Holy Mosque, but not by one thousand times.”
Shaykh `Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani writes the following in the section on entering Madina at the end of the section on the Pilgrimage in his book:
al-Ghunya li talibi tariq al-Haqq `azza wa jall:
Entering Madina the Illuminated
If Allah blesses the pilgrim with prosperity and he is able to come to Madina, then what is desirable for him is that he come to the mosque of the Prophet and say upon entering it:
allahumma salli `ala muhammadin wa `ala ali muhammad, waftah li abwab rahmatik, wa kaffi `anni abwab `adhabik, al-hamdu lillah rabb al-`alamin.
O Allah, send blessings upon Muhammad and upon the family of Muhammad, and stem for me the gates of your mercy, and close for me the gates of your punishment, all praise belongs to Allah.
Then let him come to the grave of the Prophet and standin its proximity so that he will be between the grave and the Qibla, and let him stand so that the facade of the Qiblawill be behind him and the grave in front of him exactly facing his face, and the minbar to his left…
Let him then say:
Peace upon you, O Prophet, and Allah’s mercy and His blessings!
O Allah, send blessings upon Muhammad and upon the family of Muhammad as you have sent blessings upon Ibrahim, praised and glorified are You!
O Allah, bestow upon our master Muhammad the Means (al-wasila) and the Priority (al-fadila) and the high rank (al-daraja al-rafi`a), and raise him to the exalted station (al-maqam al-mahmud) which You have promised him!
O Allah, send blessings upon the spirit of Muhammad among all spirits, and upon his body upon all bodies, just as he has conveyed Your Message and recited Your signs and fought according to Your command and striven in Your path and commanded that You be obeyed and forbade that You be disobeyed and opposed those who opposed You and befriended those who befriended You and served You until death came to him.
O Allah, You said to Your Prophet in Your Book: “If they had only, when they were unjust to themselves, come unto thee and asked Allah’s forgiveness, and the Messenger had asked forgiveness for them, they would have found Allah indeed Oft-returning, Most Merciful” (4:64), and I have come to Your House [sic; two other manuscripts have: “and I have come to You”] in repentence from my sins and seeking forgiveness, therefore I ask You that you make forgiveness guaranteed for me as you have made it guaranteed for those who came to him in his lifetime acknowledging their sins, so that their Prophet invoked You on their behalf and You forgave them.
O Allah! I am turning to You with Your Prophet, upon him Your peace, the Prophet of mercy. O Messenger of Allah! I am turning with you to my Lord so that He will forgive me my sins.
O Allah, I am asking You for his sake (bi haqqihi) that You forgive me and grant me mercy.
O Allah, grant to Muhammad that he be the first of the intercessors, the most successful of those who ask, and the most honorable of the first and the last.
O Allah, just as we believed in him without seeing him; and just as we confirmed him without meeting him: enter us where he entered and raise us in his group and bring us to his pond and quench us with his cup of a satisfying, pure, fresh, whole drink after which we shall never thirst , and keep us forever away from disappointment, betrayal, deviation, negation, and doubt, and make us not of those You are angered against, nor of the misguided, but place us among the people of his intercession. […]
Al-hafiz ibn al-Jawzi al-Hanbali
Ibn al-Jawzi writes in Muthir Al-Gharam Al-Sakin Ila Ashraf Al-Amakin:
Chapter on Visiting the Grave of The Prophet
He who visits the grave of Allah’s Messenger should stand while visiting him with in most respectful manner possible, as if he were with him in his lifetime.
Ibn `Umar narrates that Allah’s Messenger said: “He who performs pilgrimage then visits my grave after my death, is like those who visited me during my lifetime.”
Ibn `Umar narrates: Allah’s Messenger said, “He who visits my grave becomes eligible for my intercession.”
Anas narrates: Allah’s Messenger said: “He who visits me in Madina counting on his visit to me (muhtasiban), I will be his witness and intercessor on the day of Judgment.”
Ibn Abi Mulayka said: “Whoever wants to stand facing the Prophet, let him position himself where the Lamp which is located in the Qibla at the grave is over his head.” There is another mark that is more easily recognizable than the Lamp, it is a brass nail in the room’s wall. When someone stands besides it, the Lamp would be over his head.
Ibn Abi Fudayk said, “I heard some people who lived duthe same era, we heard that anyone who stands at the Prophet’s grave and recite this verse, Inna Allaha wa mala’ikatahu yusalluna `ala al-Nabi (Al-Ahzab 56) and then say: Salla Allahu `alaika ya Muhammad and seventy times, an angel will call out to him: “May Allah send blessings on you, O So-and-so! No need of yours will go from hence unfulfilled.”
It was related to us [with its chain of transmission] that Ka`b al-Ahbar said: “Every dawn, seventy thousand (70,000) angels descend and encircle the grave, flapping their wings, and invoking blessings on the Prophet until it is evening time, whereupon they ascend, and an equal number descend and do the same. And this is so until the earth breaks open, whereupon he will come out among seventy thousand (70,000) angels supporting him.
`Umar ibn `Abd al-`Aziz used to send his courier from Syria with the message: “Convey my greetings to Allah’s Messenger.”
Chapter on His Nation’s Greeting Reaching Him
`Abd Allah ibn Mas`ud said: Allah’s Messenger said, “Allah has angels that roam the earth bringing me the greetings of my nation.” Abu Huraira said, “No one sends me Salam except Allah has returned my soul to me so that I can return his Salam.”
Chapter on Some Sayings That Were Retained From the Visitors to his Grave and States They Have Experienced
Abu Nasir told us [with his chain of transmission] that `Ali said: “When Allah’s Messenger was buried, Fatima came and stood in front of his grave, took a handful of soil, put it on her eyes, cried and recited:
The one who breathes from the soil of Ahmad
Will never breathe trouble all his life long
If the troubles that have been poured on me
Were poured on days, they would turn into nights
Muhammed ibn Hibban said: I heard Ibrahim ibn Shaybansaying: “I performed pilgrimage one year, so I came to Madina and approached the grave of the Prophet and said Salam to him. I heard from inside the room: “Wa `aleika al-Salam.”
Abu Hazim [Salama ibn Dinar] said: I heard Sa`id ibn al-Musayyib say: “During the nights of the heat wave there were no people in the Prophet’s Masjid except myself. The people of Syria would enter in groups and say:
1 “ Look at this crazy old man! “ and whenever the time of prayer came, I would hear adhan coming from the Prophet’s grave. I would step forward, call iqama and pray, and there would be no one in the Masjid but me.”
Muhammad ibn Harb al-Hilali said: “I entered Madina, and came to the grave of Allah’s Messenger. An Arab came and to visit him and said: “O best of the Prophets, Allah has revealed to you a truthful book and said in it: “If they had only, when they were unjust to themselves, come unto thee and asked Allah’s forgiveness, and the Messenger had asked forgiveness for them, they would have found Allah indeed Oft-returning, Most Merciful”(4:64), so I have come to you asking forgiveness for my sin, seeking your intercession with my Lord.”
Then he began to recite poetry:
O best of those whose bones are buried in the deep earth,
And from whose fragrance the depth
and the height have become sweet,
May I be the ransom for a grave which thou inhabit,
And in which are found purity, bounty and munificence!
Then he left, and I dozed and saw the Prophet in my sleep. He said to me: “Run after the Arab and give him glad tidings that Allah has forgiven him through my intercession.”
Abu al-Khayr al-Aqta` said: “I entered the city of Allah’s Messenger and I was in material need. I stayed five days without eating anything. I came toward the grave and said Salam to the Prophet and to Abu Bakr and `Umar then said: “I am your guest tonight, O Allah’s Messenger!” I then stepped aside and slept behind the Minbar. I saw the Prophet in my dream, with Abu Bakr to his Right, `Umar to his left, and `Ali in front of him. `Ali shook me and said, “Get up, Rasullullah is coming.” I got up and kissed him between his eyes; he gave me a loaf of bread, I ate half of it; when I woke up I found half a loaf in my hand.”
Ibn Qudamah Hanbali, defining the manner of pilgrimage to the shrine of the Prophet (s), writes in the book al-Mughni:
Stand beside the tomb of the Prophet (s), and say: I have come to you for forgiveness of my sins and to seek your intercession with Allah.
[Al-Mughni ma’ al-Sharh, vol. 3, p. 588; al-Sharh al-Kabir ma’ al-Mughni, vol. 3, p. 494.]
Imām Ibn Qudāmah al-Maqdisī (ra), in his encyclopaedic work; al-Mughnī (3/588), in the section concerning visitation of the Prophet’s (alayhi salaat wa salaam) grave: Then you go to the grave [of the prophet(alayhi salaat wa salaam)] and say: “Indeed, I have come to you seeking forgiveness for my sins and seeking intercession through you unto my Lord.” This is also mentioned in ash-Sharh al-Kabīr.
Dawud ibn Salih says: “[The Caliph] Marwan one day saw a man placing his face on top of the grave of the Prophet. He said: “Do you know what you are doing?” When he came near him, he realized it was Abu Ayyub al-Ansari. The latter said: “Yes; I came to the Prophet, not to a stone.
►Ibn Hibban in his Sahih,
►Tabarani in his Mu`ja
►al-Hakim in his Mustadrak (4:515); both the latter and al-Dhahabi said it was sahih.
►It is also cited by al-Subki in Shifa’ al-siqam (p. 126),
►Ibn Taymiyya in al-Muntaqa (2:261f.), and
►Haythami in al-Zawa’id (4:2)
Imam Malik disliked people saying: “ We visited the grave of the Prophet.”
People have disagreed about the meaning of this statement. It is said that he disliked it because of the Prophet’s saying: “Allah curses women who visit graves” [Ahmad, Tirmidhi, Ibn Hibban].
People related that the Prophet then said: “I forbade you to visit graves, but now you can visit them” [Muslim].
The Prophet said, “Anyone who visits my grave…” [man zara qabri] and used the word “visit”…
Abu `Imran al-Fasi said, “Malik disliked anyone saying,
“the tawaf of the visit,” or, “we visited the grave of the Prophet,”
because people normally use that for visits between themselves, and he did not like to put the Prophet on the same level as other people. He preferred a specific statement like
“We greeted the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.””
Moreover, it is merely recommended for people to visit each other whereas there is a strong obligation to visit the grave of the Prophet. “Obligation” here means the recommendation and encouragement to do that, not the obligation which is a legal duty. I think the best interpretation is that Malik forbade anddisliked the practice of connecting the word “grave” with the Prophet.
He did not dislike the people saying:
” We visited the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.”
This is because of the Prophet’s statement, “O Allah, do not make my grave an idol to be worshipped after me. Allah was angry with people who took the graves of their Prophets as mosques.”
So he [Malik] omitted the word “grave” in order to cut off the means and close the door to this wrong action.
In al-Mabsut, Malik says, “I do not think people should stand at the grave of the Prophet, but should greet and then depart”… and “It is not necessary for the people of Madina who enter and leave the mosque to stand at the grave. That is forstrangers“… and “There is no harm in someone who comes from a journey or leaves on a journey standing at the grave of the Prophet“…
The Maliki scholar, Ibn Farhun (d. 799) , in his book “Irshad alSalik” (Pg 592) writes:
وذکر عن مالک أن فی البقیع من الصحابة-رضی الله عنهم- عشرة الاف صحابی و أما کبار التابعین وتابع تابعین فما یحصیهم الا الله تعالی ، فینبغی السلام علیهم والدعاء لهم والتوسل بهم الی الله تعالی
Rough translation: It is narrated from Imam Malik that in Baqi are thousands of Sahabah, Tabi’in and Taba’ at-Tabi’in. One should greet them, pray for them and take them as a recourse/intercessor/means (tawassul) to Allah Ta’ala.
Uhud – Supplication of Visiting Grave yards (Billboard at Uhud Grave site and Women Forbidden Contradiction)