Hadith Proofs for the Hanafi Procedure of Witr



source: darultahqiq

This is a collection of hadith proofs for the Hanafi method of Witr. It is divided into five sections:

  1. The first section is on the evidences for Witr consisting of three rak‘ahs
  2. The second is on the evidences for there being only one set of salams for Witr
  3. The third is on the evidences for sitting for tashahhud in the second rak‘ah of Witr
  4. The fourth is on the evidences for reciting Qunut before ruku‘ of the third rak‘ah of Witr
  5. The fifth is on the evidences for saying takbir and raising the hands before Qunut

Section One: Witr is Three Rak‘ahs

Hadith One

Al-Bukhari and Muslim transmitted in their Sahihs from ‘A’ishah that she said when describing the night prayer of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him):

يصلي أربعا فلا تسل عن حسنهن وطولهن ثم يصلي أربعا فلا تسل عن حسنهن وطولهن ثم يصلي ثلاثا

“He would pray four (rak‘ahs of tahajjud), so do not ask about their beauty and their length. Then he would pray (another) four (rak‘ahs of tahajjud), so do not ask about their beauty and their length. And then he would pray three (rak‘ahs of Witr).” (Fath al-Bari, Dar al-Salam, 3:42)

Hadith Two

Imam Muslim transmitted in his Sahih from ‘Ali ibn ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Abbas from his father, ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Abbas in the description of the Prophet’s night prayer:

ثم أوتر بثلاث

“Then he performed Witr with three (rak‘ahs).” (Fath al-Mulhim, Dar Ihya al-Turath al-‘Arabi, 5:115-6)

Ahmad, al-Tahawi and others trasmitted from Ibn ‘Abbas:

كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يوتر بثلاث بسبح اسم ربك الأعلى وقل يا أيها الكافرون وقل هو الله أحد

“The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) would offer Witr with three (rak‘ahs), with [the surahs] sabbihisma rabbika l-a‘la, qul ya ayyuha l-kafirun and qul huwa Llahu ahad.”

The editors of Musnad Ahmad commented: “Its chain is sahih.” (Musnad Ahmad, Mu’assasat al-Risalah, 4:457, no. 2726)

Imam al-Tahawi narrated through multiple authentic routes from Ibn ‘Abbas that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) would offer Witr with three rak‘ahs. Those who narrated this from Ibn ‘Abbas include Kurayb, ‘Ali ibn ‘Abd Allah, Sa‘id ibn Jubayr and Yahya ibn al-Jazzar. Some of these reports from Ibn ‘Abbas are also found in al-Nasa’i’s Sunan, al-Tirmidhi’s Jami‘ and Ibn Abi Shaybah’s Musannaf.

Hence, it is established from ‘A’ishah and Ibn ‘Abbas (may Allah be pleased with them), two of the most knowledgeable companions about the Prophet’s night-prayer, that he offered three rak‘ahs of Witr. More narrations from them are documented below.

Hadith Three

Ahmad, Abu Dawud and al-Tahawi reported that ‘Abd Allah ibn Abi Qays asked ‘A’ishah how many (rak‘ahs) did the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) pray for Witr, and she replied:

كان يوتر بأربع وثلاث وست وثلاث وثمان وثلاث وعشر وثلاث

“He would perform Witr with four and three, six and three, eight and three and ten and three.”

The editors of Musnad Ahmad said: “Its chain is sahih according to the criterion of Muslim.” (Musnad Ahmad, 42:81, no. 25159)

In this narration, ‘A’ishah describes different practices of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) in his night prayer. Sometimes he would offer four rak‘ahs (of tahajjud), at other times six, at other times eight and at other times ten, but in all cases he would add three rak‘ahs (of Witr). The additional three rak‘ahs are the actual Witr prayer, while the other rak‘ahs are of the optional night prayer. In hadith terminology, often “witr” is used for the sum total of the night prayer and Witr itself. This narration makes it clear that the three rak‘ahs are distinguished from the other set of prayers.

Hadith Four

Ibn Abi Shaybah, Ahmad and al-Nasa’i transmitted from Ibn ‘Umar that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said:

صلاة المغرب وتر النهار

“Maghrib prayer is the Witr of the day.”

Hafiz al-‘Iraqi sourced it to Ahmad in Takhrij al-Ihya’ and said its chain is sahih (footnotes to Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, Dar Qurtubah, 4:466, no. 6773).

‘Allamah Badr al-Din al-‘Ayni said: “The chain is according to the criterion of the two shaykhs (i.e. Bukhari and Muslim).” (Nukhab al-Afkar, Dar al-Nawadir, 5:100)

Imam Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Shaybani, one of the foremost students of Imam Abu Hanifah, said after narrating these words in his Muwatta’ as a mawquf narration from Ibn ‘Umar: “For the one who considers Maghrib prayer the Witr of the day – as Ibn ‘Umar said – it ought to be that the Witr of the night prayer is similar to it.” (al-Ta‘liq al-Mumajjad, Dar al-Qalam, 1:647)

Hadith Five

Imam al-Tahawi narrated with his chain from ‘Uqbah ibn Muslim: “I asked ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Umar about Witr, and he said: ‘Do you know the Witr of the Day?’ I said: ‘Yes, Maghrib prayer.’ He said: ‘You have spoken the truth.’” (Sharh Ma‘ani al-Athar, Maktabah Haqqaniyyah, 1:197)

Regarding the chain, ‘Allamah Badr al-Din al-‘Ayni said in his commentary of Sharh Maani al-Athar calledNukhab al-Afkar: “He transmitted it with a sahih Egyptian chain.” (Nukhab al-Afkar, 5:19)

Al-Tahawi then comments: “Do you not see that when ‘Uqbah asked Ibn ‘Umar about Witr, he said, ‘Do you know the Witr of the day?’ Meaning, it is like it. And in this is what informs you that Witr was three (rak‘ahs) according to Ibn ‘Umar like Maghrib prayer, since he made his answer to one asking about the Witr of the night, ‘Do you know the Witr of the day, Maghrib prayer?’” (Sharh Ma‘ani Athar, 1:197)

This corroborates the above narration.

Hadith Six

Imam Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Shaybani narrates:

أخبرنا عبد الرحمن بن عبد الله المسعودي عن عمرو بن مرة عن أبي عبيدة قال: قال عبد الله بن مسعود: الوتر ثلاث كثلاث المغرب

‘Abd al-Rahman ibn ‘Abd Allah (ibn ‘Utbah) al-Mas‘udi reported to us from ‘Amr ibn Murrah from Abu ‘Ubaydah, he said: ‘Abd Allah ibn Mas‘ud said: “Witr is three like the three of Maghrib.” (al-Ta‘liq al-Mumajjad, 2:15)

This is an authentic chain except that it is uncertain whether Abu ‘Ubaydah heard from his father, Ibn Mas‘ud. Nonetheless, this report has another authentic route free of any defects also narrated by Muhammad:

حدثنا أبو معاوية المكفوف عن الأعمش عن مالك بن الحارث عن عبد الرحمن بن يزيد عن عبد الله بن مسعود قال: الوتر ثلاث كصلاة المغرب

This report comes via the route of al-A‘mash from Malik ibn al-Harith from ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Yazid from’Abd Allah ibn Mas‘ud that he said, “Witr is three like Maghrib prayer.” Al-Tahawi also narrated it via the same route through two chains, and al-‘Ayni said: “He transmitted it via two sahih routes.” (Nukhab al-Afkar, 5:107) Ibn Abi Shaybah also transmitted it via this chain in his Musannaf (no. 6779, 6889) as did ‘Abd al-Razzaq in hisMusannaf (no. 4635).

Hadith Seven

The above report was also narrated as a marfu‘ hadith from the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), that he said:

وتر الليل ثلاث كوتر النهار صلاة المغرب

“The Witr of the night is three, like the Witr of the day, Maghrib prayer.”

Al-Daraqutni reported it in his Sunan (no. 1653). All the narrators in his chain are reliable except Yahya ibn Zakariyya ibn Abi l-Hawajib who al-Daraqutni declared weak. However, Ibn Hibban included Yahya ibn Zakariyya in his Kitab al-Thiqat (a book on reliable narrators) which somewhat elevates his status. Nonetheless, despite the weakness of this narration it is supported by the authentic narration from the Prophet (peace be upon him) quoted previously (hadith four) and from the authentic statements of Ibn Mas‘ud and Ibn ‘Umar that compare the Maghrib prayer with Witr.

Hadith Eight

Al-Tahawi and Ibn Majah narrate with their chains from ‘Amir al-Sha‘bi that he said:

سألت ابن عباس وابن عمر: كيف كان صلاة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بالليل؟ فقال: ثلاث عشرة ركعة، ثمان ويوتر بثلاث وركعتين بعد الفجر

“I asked Ibn ‘Abbas and Ibn ‘Umar: ‘How was the prayer of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) in the night?’ He said: ‘Thirteen rak‘ahs: eight (optional) and he performed Witr with three (rak‘ahs) and two rak‘ahs after dawn (for the Sunnah of Fajr).’”

Al-‘Ayni comments that the chain is “sahih according to the criterion of the two shaykhs (Bukhari and Muslim.” (Nukhab al-Afkar, 5:21)

Hadith Nine

Imam Muhammad narrated in his Muwatta’:

أخبرنا أبو حنيفة: حدثنا أبو جعفر قال: كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يصلي ما بين صلاة العشاء إلى صلاة الصبح ثلاث عشر ركعة ثماني ركعات تطوعا وثلاث ركعات الوتر وركعتي الفجر

“Abu Hanifah reported to us: Abu Ja‘far narrated to us, he said: The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) would pray 13 rak‘ahs between ‘Isha prayer and dawn prayer: 8 optional rak‘ahs, threerak‘ahs Witr and two rak‘ahs of Fajr (Sunnah).” (Muwatta’ no. 259)

This is an authentic mursal chain. A mursal hadith is one in which a Tabi‘i narrates directly from the Prophet (peace be upon him) without mentioning his source. Abu Ja‘far is Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn Husayn ibn ‘Ali al-Baqir (56 – 114 H), a descendent of the Prophet (peace be upon him) whose narrations are found in all six of the famous collections of hadith. Mursal reports are a proof (hujjah) according to the majority of jurists. Evenso, it is supported by the authentic narration quoted above.

Hadith Ten

Al-Tahawi narrates with his chain from Abu l-‘Aliyah:

علمنا أصحاب محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم أن الوتر مثل صلاة المغرب غير أنا نقرأ فى الثالثة فهذا وتر الليل وهذا وتر النهار

“The Companions of Muhammad (Allah bless him and grant him peace) taught us that Witr is equivalent to Maghrib prayer, except that we recite in the third (rak‘ah). Thus, this is the Witr of the night and this (i.e. Maghrib) is the Witr of the day.”

‘Allamah al-Nimawi said its isnad is sahih (Quoted in I‘la al-Sunan, 6:45).

Abu l-‘Aliyah is the agnomen of Rufay‘ ibn Mihran (d. 93). He was a very senior Tabi‘i, whose narrations can be found in all six famous collections of hadith. He was born in the lifetime of Prophet (peace be upon him) and accepted Islam in the period of Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him). He heard from many senior Sahabah including ‘Umar, ‘Ali, Ibn Mas‘ud and Ubayy ibn Ka‘b.

The fact that a large group of Sahabah taught that Witr is similar to Maghrib illustrates that this was something well-known and accepted in the earliest generation of Islam. “Except that we recite in the third (rak‘ah)” means that unlike Maghrib prayer, in the Witr prayer, the worshipper recites a portion of the Qur’an after completing Surah al-Fatihah in the third rak‘ah.

Abu al-‘Aliayh would give fatwa on what he learnt from the Sahabah, and would say: “Do (in Witr) as you do in Maghrib,” as reported by Ibn Abi Shaybah in his Musannaf (no. 6909) with an authentic chain.

Hadith Eleven

Al-Tahawi and Ibn Abi Shaybah narrated with their chains to Anas ibn Malik that he said:

الوتر ثلاث ركعات

“Witr is three rak‘ahs.”

And his student Humayd narrates that Anas “would offer Witr with three rak‘ahs.” Al-‘Ayni said the chain issahih (Nukhab al-Akfar, 5:108) Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani also said its chain is sahih (al-Dirayah, quoted in I‘la Sunan, 6:44)

‘Abd al-Razzaq reported from his teacher, Ma‘mar ibn Rashid, from Thabit al-Bunani that he said:

صليت مع أنس وبت عنده قال: فرأيته يصلي مثنى مثنى حتى إذا كان في آخر صلاته أوتر بثلاث مثل مغرب

“I prayed with Anas and I spent the night with him, and I saw him praying two, two (rak‘ahs) until when he was at the end of his prayer, he performed Witr with three (rak‘ahs) like Maghrib.” (Musannaf ‘Abd al-Razzaq, no. 4636, 4662, 4663)

This is an authentic chain.

Hadith Twelve

Ibn Abi Shaybah narrated in his Musannaf (no. 6891) with an authentic chain that ‘Umar buried Abu Bakr in the night and then entered the mosque and offered Witr in three rak‘ahs. Al-Tahawi narrates more details of this incident (see section two, hadith four below).

‘Abd al-Razzaq also narrates it with the same chain (no. 4639), and adds: “(Many) people from the Muslims performed Witr with him (i.e. behind him).”

This proves that a large group of Sahabah approved of the Witr that he performed.

Hadith Thirteen

Ibn Abi Shaybah narrated in his Musannaf (no. 6898):

حدثنا عباد بن العوام عن العلاء بن المسيب عن أبيه عن عائشة قالت: لا توتر بثلاث بتر، صل قبلها ركعتين أو أربعا

‘Abbad ibn al-‘Awwam narrated to us from al-‘Ala’ ibn al-Musayyab from his father (al-Musayyab ibn Rafi‘) from ‘A’ishah, she said: “Do not perform Witr with three (rak‘ahs), cut-off. Pray before it [at least] two rak‘ahs or four.”

The narrators of this chain are all trustworthy, but it is uncertain whether al-Musayyab heard from ‘A’ishah.

This proves that ‘A’ishah regarded Witr as a three-rak‘ah prayer, but disliked that it is “cut off” and not preceded by optional prayers. This is also the explanation of the hadith quoted by opponents of the Hanafi view which states that the Prophet (peace be upon him) forbade making Witr resemble Maghrib and to pray five or seven or nine rak‘ahs. The meaning of this hadith is that unlike the three rak‘ahs of Maghrib which is not normally preceded by optional prayers, it is recommended to offer optional prayers before Witr. This does not negate that the Witr itself consists of three rak‘ahs.

Hadith Fourteen

‘A’ishah said:

كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يوتر بثلاث

Al-Hakim (1:305) transmitted it and said it is authentic according to the criteria of al-Bukhari and Muslim and al-Dhahabi agreed (footnotes to Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, 4:494).

Hadith Fifteen

Ibn Abi Shaybah in his Musannaf (no. 6943), Ahmad, al-Tahawi and al-Nasa’i narrated with their chains from the Sahabi, ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Abza:

أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم كان يقرأ في وتره بسبح اسم ربك الأعلى وقل يا أيها الكافرون وقل هو الله أحد فإذا سلم قال سبحن الملك القدوس

“The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) would recite in his Witr sabbihisma rabbika l-a‘la, qul ya ayyuha l-kafirun and qul huwa Llahu ahad. Then when he said salam, he said subhan al-malik al-quddus.”

Muhammad ‘Awwamah said “the chain of the author (i.e. Ibn Abi Shaybah) is sahih.” (footnote to Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, 4:485)

This hadith also indicates that the Prophet (peace be upon him) would not say salam until after the threerak‘ahs were complete, as the Sahabah said, “then when he said salam…” More proofs for this will be discussed in the next section.

Hadith Sixteen

Ibn Abi Shaybah also narrated with his chain from Ubayy ibn Ka‘b (Musannaf, no 6960):

أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم كان يوتر ببسبح اسم ربك الأعلى وقل يا أيها الكافرون وقل هو الله أحد ويقول في آخر صلاته سبحان الملك القدوس

“The Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) would perform Witr with sabbihisma rabbika l-a‘la, qul ya ayyuha l-kafirun and qul huwa Llahu ahad, and he would say at the end of his prayer subhan al-malik al-quddus.”

Al-Nasa’i, Ibn Majah and Abu Dawud also transmitted it. Muhammad ‘Awwamah said, “The hadith is authentic.” (Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, 4:515)

‘Abd al-Razzaq al-San‘ani narrates that it was the practice of Ubayy ibn Ka‘b to offer three rak‘ahs of Witr (Musannaf, no. 4661)

Hadith Seventeen

Imam al-Bukhari narrrated in his Sahih that al-Qasim ibn Muhammad said:

ورأينا أناسا منذ أدركنا يوترون بثلاث

“We saw people ever since we reached maturity performing Witr with three (rak‘ahs).” (Fath al-Bari, 2:616)

Al-Qasim ibn Muhammad, the grandson of Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him), reached maturity approximately in the year 50 H. Thus, he witnessed the time of many Sahabah.

Note: The hadiths that say Witr is one rak‘ah or five or seven or more rak‘ahs are interpreted in light of the overwhelming evidence above which stipulate that Witr is three rak‘ahs. By one rak‘ah of Witr is intended onerak‘ah that is joined to two preceding rak‘ahs, and the reason one rak‘ah is mentioned specifically is because it is that one rak‘ah that renders the number of rak‘ahs odd, and the literal meaning of “witr” is “odd.” When a number more than three is mentioned, the meaning of “witr” is the entire night prayer, and not just the threerak‘ahs of Witr.


Section Two: There is Only One Set of Salams at the End of Witr

A difference of opinion arose from the time of the Sahabah whether Witr consists of two sets of salams or or just one at the end. Famously, Ibn ‘Umar held the former view although Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani explained that what is apparent from his practice is that he would normally pray three rak‘ahs of Witr with one set of salams, unless some need arose in which case he would say salam after two rak‘ahs and after completing his need, add the final rak‘ah to it (Fath al-Bari, quoted in I‘la al-Sunan, 6:29).

The Hanafis favour the view that there is only one set of salams at the end of Witr. This is proven from the practice of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) and major Sahabah and Tabi‘in as documented below.

Hadith One

Al-Nasa’i, Muhammad, al-Tahawi and Ibn Abi Shaybah (Musannaf, no. 6912) transmitted with the same chain (Sa‘id ibn Abi ‘Arubah from Qatadah from Zurarah ibn Abi Awfa from Sa‘d ibn Hisham) that ‘A’ishah said:

كان نبي الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لا يسلم في ركعتي الوتر

“The Prophet of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) would not say salam in the two rak‘ahs of Witr.”

Al-Nawawi said of this hadith: “Al-Nasa’i narrated it with a hasan chain, and al-Bayhaqi narrated it in al-Sunan al-Kubra with a sahih chain.” (Sharh al-Muhadhdhab, 3:513)

Al-Hakim also narrated it and said it is authentic according to criteria of al-Bukhari and Muslim and al-Dhahabi agreed.

Hadith Two

Imam Ahmad narrated in his Musnad:

حدثنا أبو النضر حدثنا محمد يعني ابن راشد عن يزيد بن يعفر عن الحسن عن سعد بن هشام عن عائشة أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم كان إذا صلى العشاء دخل المنزل ثم صلى ركعتين ثم صلى بعدهما ركعتين أطول منهما ثم أوتر بثلاث لا يفصل فيهن ثم صلى ركعتين وهو جالس

“Abu al-Nadr narrated to us: Muhammad – meaning, Ibn Rashid – narrated to us: from Yazid ibn Ya‘fur from al-Hasan from Sa‘d ibn Hisham from ‘A’ishah that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) would, when he prayed ‘Isha’, enter the house and then pray two rak‘ahs, and then pray after them two rak‘ahs lengthier than them, and then he performed Witr with three (rak‘ahs) without creating a gap in them (i.e. in the three rak‘ahs), and then he prayed two (optional) rak‘ahs while he was sitting.” (Musnad Ahmad, no. 25223)

The only fault in this chain is that there is disagreement over the narrator Yazid ibn Ya‘fur, who was considered trustworthy (thiqah) by Ibn Hibban, and al-Daraqutni said, “he is considered.” Hence, even if there is slight weekness in this chain, it can at the very least be considered a supporting evidence to the previous narration.

Hadith Three

Al-Nasa’i narrated:

أخبرنا يحيى بن موسى قال: أخبرنا عبد العزيز بن خالد قال: حدثنا سعيد بن أبي عروبة عن قتادة عن عزرة عن سعيد بن عبد الرحمن بن أبزى عن أبيه عن أبي بن كعب قال: كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقرأ فى الوتر بسبح اسم ربك الأعلى وفى الركعة الثانية بقل يا أيها الكافرون وفى الثالثة بقل هو الله أحد ولا يسلم إلا في آخرهن

“Yahya ibn Musa reported to us, he said: ‘Abd al-‘Aziz ibn Khalid reported to us, he said: Sa‘id ibn Abi ‘Arubah narrated to us from Qatadah from ‘Azrah from Sa‘id ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Abza from his father from Ubayy ibn Ka‘b, he said: ‘The Messenger of Allah would recite in Witr sabbihisma rabbika l-a‘la, and in the secondrak‘ah qul ya ayyuha l-kafirun and in the third qul huwa Llah, and he would not say salam except at the end of these (three rak‘ahs).’”

(Sunan al-Nasa’i, Qadimi Kutub Khanah, pp. 248-9)

Al-‘Iraqi said its chain is sahih and al-Nimawi said it is hasan. (Quoted in I‘la al-Sunan, 6:42)

Hadith Four

Al-Tahawi narrates:

حدثنا ابن أبي داود قال: ثنا يحيى بن سليمان الجعفي قال: أنا ابن وهب قال: أخبرني عمرو عن ابن أبي هلال عن ابن السباق عن المسور بن مخرمة قال: دفنا أنا بكر ليلا فقال: عمر إني لم أوتر، فقام وصففنا وراءه فصلى بنا ثلاث ركعات لم يسلم إلا في آخرهن

Ibn Abi Dawud narrated to us, he said: Yahya ibn Sulayman al-Ju‘fi narrated to us, he said: Ibn Wahb reported to us, he said: ‘Amr reported to me from Abu Hilal from Ibn al-Sabbaq from al-Miswar ibn Makhramah, he said: “We buried Abu Bakr in the night and ‘Umar said, ‘I have not performed Witr,’ so he stood and we formed rows behind him. Then he prayed with us three rak‘ahs and he did not say salam except at the end of them.”

Al-‘Ayni said: “Its chain is sahih at the peak of authenticity.” (Nukhab al-Afkar, 5:105) And al-Nimawi said its chain is sahih. (Quoted in I‘la al-Sunan, 6:42)

The narrator, al-Miswar ibn Makhramah, was a Sahabi. ‘Umar performed this Witr in the presence of a group of Sahabah.

Hadith Five

Al-Tahawi and Ibn Abi Shaybah (Musannaf, no. 6910) narrated from Thabit (the student of Anas):

صلى بي أنس رضي الله عنه الوتر أنا عن يمينه وأم ولده خلفنا ثلاث ركعات لم يسلم إلا في آخرهن ظننت أنه يريد أن يعلمني

“Anas (may Allah be pleased with him) prayed Witr with me, me to his left and his umm al-walad (slave woman that bore his child) behind us, in three rak‘ahs. He did not say salam except at the end of them. I thought that he wanted to teach me.”

Al-‘Ayni said its chain is sahih. (Nukhab al-Afkar, 5:108) Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani also said its chain is sahih (al-Dirayah, quoted in I‘la Sunan, 6:44)

Thabit suggests that Anas (may Allah be pleased with him) put great emphasis on this form of Witr as he felt he was trying to impart to him the correct way to offer it, which indicates that this was not something based on mere opinion but most probably what he received from the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) and senior companions.

Hadith Six

‘Abd al-Razzaq narrates from Ma‘mar from Qatadah from al-Hasan that he said:

كان أبي بن كعب يوتر بثلاث لا يسلم إلا فى الثالثة مثل المغرب

“Ubayy ibn Kab would perform Witr with three (rak‘ahs) and not say salam except in the third (rak‘ah) just like Maghrib.” (Musannaf ‘Abd al-Razzaq, no. 4659)

Although the chain up to al-Hasan (al-Basri) is authentic, it is not established that al-Hasan al-Basri (22 – 110 H) met Ubayy ibn Kab (d. 30 H).

Note: The hadiths from the Prophet (peace be upon him) and his companions quoted in the first section that declare Witr akin to Maghrib also prove that there is only one set of salams in Witr just like Maghrib.

The Practice of the Fuqaha from the Tabi‘in

Al-Tahawi narrated with an authentic chain that the seven major jurists of Madinah (from the Tabi‘in) all opined that Witr is three rak‘ahs and there is no salam except at the end. Al-Nimawi said its chain is hasan. (Quoted inI‘la Sunah, 6:46)

He also reported from Abu al-Zinad that he said:

أثبت عمر بن عبد العزيز الوتر بالمدينة بقول الفقهاء ثلاثا لا يسلم إلا في آخرهن

“‘Umar ibn ‘Abd al-‘Aziz (d. 101 H) established Witr in Madinah on the basis of the view of the jurists as three (rak‘ahs), with no salam except at the end of them.”

Al-Nimawi said its chain is sahih (Quoted in I‘la Sunah, 6:46).

Ibn Abi Shaybah also narrates with authentic chains that the eminent jurists from the Tabi‘in, Ibrahim al-Nakhai, Sa‘id ibn al-Musayyab and Makhul al-Shami would practice three rak‘ahs of Witr with only one set of salams at the end (Musannaf, no. 6906, 7, 8). Abu Ishaq al-Sabi‘i (34 – 127 H), a Kufan Tabi‘i, reported that the students of ‘Ali and Ibn Mas‘ud would not say salam upon two rak‘ahs of Witr (Musannaf, no. 6911)

Al-Tahawi concludes:

“This (method of three rak‘ahs of Witr with only one set of salams at the end) is of that which ought not be opposed since it is supported by the hadith of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace), then the practice of his companions and the views of most of them after him, and then their successors agreed upon it.” (Sharh Ma‘ani al-Athar, Maktabah Haqqaniyyah, 1:207)


Section Three: The Worshipper Sits at the
Second Rak‘ah of Witr for Tashahhud

According to the Hanafi view, the worshipper sits after the second rak‘ah of Witr, and recites the tashahhud(attahiyyat) before rising up for the third rak‘ah. The proof for this is that the Witr prayer is akin to the Maghrib prayer as taught by the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) and his major companions – see hadith numbers 4, 5, 6, 7, 10 and 11 in the first section above. ‘Allamah Zafar Ahmad al-‘Uthmani said: “Drawing a comparison of it (i.e. the Witr) with Maghrib prayer conveys the obligation of sitting upon two rak‘ahs.” (I‘la Sunan, 6:43-4)

It is further supported by some general hadiths:

Hadith One

When describing the Prophet’s prayer, ‘A’ishah said as narrated in Sahih Muslim:

وكان يقول في كل ركعتين التحية

“And he would say tahiyyah (i.e. tashahhud) in every two rak‘ahs.” (Fath al-Mulhim, 3:484-5)

The word kull is for generality, indicating there were no exceptions to this practice of sitting upon every tworak‘ahs to say tashahhud.

Hadith Two

Ahmad transmitted from ‘Abd Allah ibn Mas‘ud that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said:

إذا قعدتم في كل ركعتين فقولوا التحيات لله والصلوات والطيبات…

“When you sit in every two rak‘ahs then say attahiyyatu lillahi wassalawatu wattayyibat…” (Musnad Ahmad, no. 4160)

The editors of Musnad Ahmad said: “Its chain is sahih according to the criterion of Muslim.” (Musnad Ahmad, 7:227)

In this hadith, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “when you sit in every two rak‘ahs,” demonstrating that this occurs in every two rak‘ahs without exception.

Note: The hadiths that state the Prophet (peace be upon him) would not sit in the rak‘ahs of Witr are interpreted in light of the above evidence. They are interpreted to mean he would not sit with a lengthy sitting that is followed by speech and other activity except after the final rak‘ah of Witr, not that he would not sit at all (see I‘la al-Sunan, 6:53-4).


Section Four: Qunut is Recited in Witr
Before Ruku‘ of the Third Rak‘ah

Hadith One

Imam al-Bukhari narrated in his Sahih from ‘Asim:

سألت أنس بن مالك عن القنوت فقال قد كان القنوت قلت قبل الركوع أو بعده قال قبله قال فإن فلانا أخبرني عنك أنك قلت بعد الركوع فقال كذب إنما قنت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بعد الركوع شهرا…

“I asked Anas ibn Malik about the Qunut and he said: ‘Indeed, there was Qunut.’ I said: ‘Before ruku‘ or after it?’ He said: ‘Before it.’ He said: ‘Someone reported to me from you that you said after ruku‘.’ He said: ‘He erred. The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and gran him peace) only performed Qunut after ruku‘ for a month.’” (Fath al-Bari, 2:631)

There are two types of Qunut, one which is recited when a calamity (nazilah) befalls the Muslims usually in the Fajr prayer, and another in the final rak‘ah of Witr. The favoured interpretation of this narration of Anas is that the first uncommon type of Qunut would be recited after ruku‘ while the common Qunut of Witr would be recited before ruku‘.

Hadith Two

Al-Nasa’i narrated:

أخبرنا علي بن ميمون قال: حدثنا مخلد بن يزيد عن سفيان عن زبيد عن سعيد بن عبد الرحمن بن أبزى عن أبيه عن أبي بن كعب أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم كان يوتر بثلاث ركعات، كان يقرأ فى الأولى بسبح اسم ربك الأعلى وفى الثانية بقل يا أيها الكافرون وفى الثالثة بقل هو الله أحد ويقنت قبل الركوع، فإذا فرغ قال عند فراغه: سبحان الملك القدوس

‘Ali ibn Maymun reported to us, he said: Makhlad ibn Yazid narrated to us from Sufyan from Zubayd from Sa‘id ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Abza from his father from Ubayy ibn Ka‘b that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) would perform Witr with three rak‘ahs, and he would recite in the first (rak‘ah) sabbihisma rabbika l-a‘la, and in the second qul ya ayyuha l-kafirun and in the third qul huwa Llahu ahad, and he would recite Qunut before ruku‘. When he finished, he said upon completion, subhanal malik al-quddus. (Sunan al-Nasa’i, Qadimi Kutub Khanah, p. 248)

The hadith was authenticated by Abu ‘Ali ibn al-Sakan, al-‘Uqayli and al-‘Ayni (as quoted in I‘la al-Sunan, 6:70-1)

The word kana (he would) used in the hadith indicates perpetuity.

Note: Imam Muhammad narrates with his chain in Kitab al-Hujjah (1:201) from Ibn ‘Abbas almost the exact same description quoted here, although there is some weakness in his chain.

Hadith Three

Al-Hasan ibn ‘Ali said:

علمني رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم كلمات أقولهن في قنوت الوتر…

“The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) taught me words that I say in the Qunut of Witr…”

It was narrated by Ahmad, Ibn Majah, al-Nasa’i, al-Hakim and Ibn Abi Shaybah. Al-Nawawi said it has a sahihchain (Khulasat al-Ahkam, no. 1499) This proves that one is to always say the Qunut in Witr.

Hadith Four

Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani said:

وروى ابن أبي شيبة بإسناد حسن عن علقمة أن ابن مسعود وأصحاب النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم كانوا يقنتون فى الوتر قبل الركوع

“Ibn Abi Shaybah narrated (Musannaf, no. 6983) with a hasan chain from ‘Alqamah that Ibn Mas‘ud and the companions of the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) would do Qunut in Witr before ruku‘.” (al-Dirayah, Dar al-Ma‘rifah, p. 194)

‘Alqamah ibn Qays al-Nakha‘i (d. ca. 60) was a very senior Tabi‘i who was born in the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) but accepted Islam after his death. He narrated from senior companions including ‘Umar, ‘Uthman, ‘Ali, Salman and Abu l-Darda’, although his primary teacher was ‘Abd Allah ibn Mas‘ud. He became so experienced and adept in knowledge that even the Sahabah would seek knowledge from him and ask him questions! Hence, his testimony that the Sahabah would recite Qunut in Witr before ruku‘is strong evidence of the prevalence of this practice in the earliest generation of Islam.

Hadith Five

Ibn Abi Shaybah narrates in Musannaf (no. 6972) with an authentic chain:

أن عمر قنت فى الوتر قبل الركوع

“That ‘Umar did Qunut in Witr before ruku‘.”

Hadith Six

Muhammad narrated in his Kitab al-Athar:

أنا أبو حنيفة عن حماد عن إبراهيم أن ابن مسعود كان يقنت السنة كلها فى الوتر قبل الركوع

“Abu Hanifah reported to us from Hammad (ibn Abi Sulayman) from Ibrahim (al-Nakha‘i) that Ibn Mas‘ud would perform Qunut the entire year in Witr before ruku‘.” (Quoted in I‘la Sunan 6:85)

This is an authentic narration. Although Ibrahim al-Nakha‘i did not meet Ibn Mas‘ud, his narrations from him are authentic as he clarified that when he does not mention his source to Ibn Mas‘ud in any particular narration, it is because he recieved it from multiple reliable sources.

Note: The famous du‘a of Qunut, “Allahumma inna nasta‘inuka wa nastaghfiruka…,” was taught by Ibn Mas‘ud for the Qunut of Witr as narrated by Ibn Abi Shaybah in his Musannaf (no. 6965) with an authentic chain. This du‘a was also narrated from ‘Umar, ‘Ali and ‘Uthman as also recorded in the Musannaf of Ibn Abi Shaybah.


Section Five: The Worshipper Says Takbir and Raises his Hands before the Qunut

Ibn Abi Shaybah narrated in his Musannaf (no. 7021) from al-Aswad that ‘Abd Allah ibn Mas‘ud would when he completed the recitation in the third rak‘ah of Witr, say takbir and then recite Qunut, and when he completed the Qunut, he said takbir and bowed.

Ibn Abi Shaybah narrates in his Musannaf (no. 7027, 7028) that ‘Abd Allah ibn Masud would raise his hands upon reciting Qunut. Al-Bukhari narrates in his Juz’ Raf al-Yadayn:

حدثنا عبد الرحيم المحاربي: حدثنا زائدة عن ليث عن عبد الرحمن بن الأسود عن أبيه عن عبد الله أنه  كان يقرأ في آخر ركعة من الوتر قل هو الله أحد ثم يرفع يديه ويقنت قبل الركعة

‘Abd al-Rahim al-Muharibi narrated to us: Za’idah narrated to us from Layth (ibn Abi Sulaym) from ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Aswad from his father from ‘Abd Allah that he would recite in the last rakah of Witr qul huwallahu ahad and then raise his hands and recite Qunut before ruku‘. (Juz’ Raf‘ al-Yadayn, no 163)

Imam al-Bukhari suggests the narration is authentic. However, the narrator Layth ibn Abi Sulaym is present in the chain about whom the scholars have mixed opinions.

It is also reported from ‘Umar and ‘Ali that they would say takbir before starting the Qunut (I‘la Sunan, 6:85-6).

Imam Muhammad narrated:

أنا أبو حنيفة عن حماد عن إبراهيم أن القنوت فى الوتر واجب في رمضان وغيره قبل الركوع وإذا أردت أن تقنت فكبر وإذا أردت أن تركع فكبر أيضا

“Abu Hanifah reported to us from Hammad (ibn Abi Sulayman) from Ibrahim (al-Nakha‘i) that the Qunut in Witr is obligatory in Ramadan and outside of it before ruku‘, and when you wish to recite Qunut, say takbir and when you wish to bow, say takbir also.” (Kitab al-Hujjah, 1:200)

Ibrahim al-Nakha‘i was the foremost jurist of Iraq in his time. He was born in approximately the year 40 H and died in 96 H. His narrations of hadith are found in all six famous collections of hadith, and he was the most learned of the jurisprudential school of ‘Abd Allah ibn Mas‘ud. Hence, the rulings issued by him are given great weight in the Hanafi madhhab.

The purpose of collecting the above evidences was not to discredit the view of any other madhhab, but to show that the view of the Hanafi madhhab with respect to Witr (which has been the subject of abuse and attack) is well-supported by authentic hadiths and the practice of the early generations.



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In the Holy Quran, Allah, glory unto Him, vows by the Prophet’s (pbuh) life. Mentioning his great name next to His Own, the Almighty has required belief in his prophethood, as a precondition of being a worthy servant. Allah took offense in others raising their voices in the presence of His Beloved (pbuh), cautioning against calling out his name like any other. What’s more, the Almighty has stated that He and the angels send their numerous blessings, salawat’us-sharifah, to the Prophet (pbuh), ordering his ummah amply do the same.

In accordance with the ayah:

“Allah and His angels send blessings on the Prophet: O Believers! Send your blessings on him and salute him with all respect,” (al-Ahzab, 56) sending salawat’us-sharifah to that Great Being is a duty for all Believers, laid down by Allah, glory unto Him.

Narrating the following is Ubayy ibn Kab (r.a):

“A third of the night had passed when the Messenger of Allah awoke from his sleep and said:

Remember Allah, people, remember Allah! Blown will be the first horn that will rattle the ground. Then will follow the second. Death will arrive with all its intensity; death will arrive with all its intensity…’

‘I send lots of salawat’us-sharifah, Messenger of Allah’, said I. ‘How often should I do it?’

As much as you wish’ he replied.

‘Would it be right if I spared a quarter of my prayer for it?’ I again inquired.

Spare as much from it as you wish’, he advised. ‘But it will be better for you if you spared more.’

‘Then I will spare half’, I proposed.

As you wish…But better if you spared more’, said he.

‘How about I spared two-thirds then?’

As you wish… But better if you spared more’.

‘How would it be then if I send salawat’us-sharifah in the entire time I spare for prayer?’ I then asked.

If you do’, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) replied, ‘then Allah will rid you of all your troubles and forgive your sins.’” (Tirmidhi, Qiyamat, 23/2457)

Devotees of the Prophet (pbuh), therefore, embrace the salawat’us-sharifah as a continuous chant, for they are means of increasing the love of the Prophet in a Believer’s heart. Appropriately following the Blessed Messenger (pbuh) and making the most of the quintessential example he has provided doubtless comes through a grasp of the reality of the Quran and Sunnah, which in turn is possible only by virtue of drawing closer to the exemplary morals of the Prophet (pbuh), and delving into the depths of his heart.

No mortal has succeeded in describing his essential attribute; his towering morals and disposition has eluded comprehension. The wise, those spiritual sultans, even the great Jibril, have all accepted being on his path as the greatest honor, begging by his door as the most indefinable bliss.

On another note, according to the manners of prayer advised by Islam, all prayers begin and end with thanking Allah, glory unto Him, and sending blessings to the Blessed Prophet (pbuh). There is an established conviction that Allah, glory unto Him, never turns down a salawat’us-sharifah, which, in essence, is a prayer and plea to the Almighty; the precise reason as to why prayers are adorned with it, both in the start and in the end. That is to say, squeezing in personal prayers amid two, whose acceptances are highly expected, is to ensure their acceptance as well.

“A prayer is left hanging between the earth and the skies,” states Omar (r.a) “and is not raised to Allah until blessings are sent to the Messenger of Allah (pbuh).” (Tirmidhi, Witr, 21/486)

Indeed, the Noble Prophet (pbuh) one day happened to see a man who, after salat, was praying without expressing thanks to Allah, glory unto Him, and sending blessings to His Messenger.

The man rushed it”, the Prophet (pbuh) then remarked, before calling him over to give advice:

Upon wishing to make a prayer, one should first thank and praise Allah and send blessings to His Prophet…and then afterward continue in whichever manner desired.” (Tirmidhi, Da’awat, 64/3477)

The importance in prayers of resorting to tawassul, submitting the Prophet’s name (pbuh) as a means, reverberates in the following incident recounted by Ibn Abbas (r.a):

“There was an ongoing war between the Jews of Khaybar and the tribe of Ghatafan, where the Jews were always routed. In the end they prayed:

‘Lord…we ask for victory in the name of the Unlettered Prophet whose appearance in the Final Epoch you have avowed’, after which they defeated Ghatafan. Yet, once Allah, glory unto Him, did make appear the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) whose name they appealed in their prayer, the Jews rejected his prophethood and the book revealed to him; whereupon Allah proclaimed:

‘And when there came to them a Book from Allah verifying that which they have, and aforetime they used to pray for victory against those who disbelieve, but when there came to them (Prophet) that which they did not recognize, they disbelieved in him; so Allah’s curse is on the unbelievers.’” (al-Baqara, 89)(Qurtubi, II, 27; Wahidi, p. 31)

Evident is thus the fact even non-Believers were able to make use of the mercy and abundance that permeated the universe with the coming of the Prophet of Mercy (pbuh), owing to his splendid honor in Divine Sight.

Addressing the Prophet (pbuh), Allah assures:

“But Allah will not punish them while you are with them, nor will He punish them while they seek forgiveness.” (al-Anfal, 33)

This Divine assurance was also revealed with regard to non-Believers. Since even they are given such a privilege, simply owing to their physical proximity to the Blessed Prophet (pbuh), the blessings awaiting Believers is simply inconceivable; especially provided they not only affirm faith in the Exceptional Being, but moreover receive a share of his love as the core of their faith. Words, here, are powerless…Beyond a shadow of a doubt, the extent of happiness in the world and the greatness of ranks in the Hereafter are to the degree of depth a Believer lets his heart immerse in the love of the Prophet (pbuh).

Therefore do not forget sending your blessings and peace to him…for you too stand in need of his intercession in the darkest of hours!

Osman Nuri Topbas


Many of those interested in studying the conspiracy have become convinced that the only way to explain the depth of its deceptiveness is to conclude that its purported perpetrators are not who they claim they are. In other words, that those who call themselves European Jews are actually descendants of the Khazars, a Turkic people of southern Russia who converted to Judaism in the eighth century AD.

The truth is the Illuminati conspiracy begins with the emergence of the Kabbalah, developed by heretical Jews in Babylon in the sixth century BC, more than a thousand years before the advent of the Khazars. It then came to form the basis of the Western occult tradition by first being inherited by the Greeks, such as Pythagoras and Plato, before spreading to the Roman world and then being adopted by esoteric Muslims before being introduced to Europe during the Crusades.

On the contrary, as the historian Cecil Roth noted, culturally the Jews could be termed the first Europeans.[1] Judaism in Europe has a long history, beginning with the conquest of the Eastern Mediterranean by Pompey in 63 BCE, thus beginning the History of the Jews in Europe. In the early Roman empire, there was a Jewish colony in Rome, and distinctive Jewish communities were found as far north as Lyons, Bonn and Cologne, and as far west as Cadiz and Toledo. When Jerusalem was sacked in 70 AD, prompting a massive exodus of Jews from Palestine, certain cities in southern France, like Arle, Lunel, and Narbonne, provided a haven for Jewish refugees where they eventually came to dominate European trade during the MIddle Ages.

Fortunately, modern genetic studies are allowing us to explode many of the false assumptions that had been made about the origins of various peoples, which had often been distorted by nationalistic sympathies. That includes the discovery that important personages in history were of Jewish ancestry, like Napoleon and Hitler, and also that the Jews of Europe originated in the Middle East.

According to Jon Entine, historians and scientists believe the Khazarian theory should more accurately be called a myth.[2]The strong claim has been widely criticized as there is no direct evidence to support it.[3] Ultimately, Ashkenazi Jews have been found to have a strong DNA connection to Israelites and the Middle East,[4] sharing many common genes with other Jews from approximately 3000 years ago,[5] which “does not support this [Khazar conversion] idea.”[6]

Abraham Eliyahu Harkavi had suggested as early as 1869 that there might be a link between the Khazars and European Jews. The theory, however, that Khazar converts formed a major proportion of Ashkenazi Jews was first proposed to a Western public by Ernest Renan in 1883.

The idea was taken up by a number of Jewish historians, including Sigmund Freud, and authors like H. G. Wells (1921). But the Khazar-Ashkenazi hypothesis came to the attention of a much wider public with the publication of The Thirteenth Tribe, by agent of the CIA Arthur Koestler in 1976. But Koestler’s work was mainly a hsitory of the Khazars, and merely provides a suggestion that European Jews may be descended from them, without providing any proof.

The last 15 years has seen a large number of genetic studies on Jewish populations worldwide, which conclude: “The consensus research holds that most Ashkenazi Jews, as well as many Jews tracing their lineage to Italy, North Africa, Iraq, Iran, Kurdish regions and Yemen, share common paternal haplotypes also found among many Arabs from Palestine, Lebanon and Syria.”[7]

Nadine Epstein, an editor and executive publisher of Moment magazine said “When I read Arthur Koestler’s The Thirteenth Tribe, I bought his theory that Ashkenazim were descended from the Khazars… But in 1997, Karl Skorecki in Haifa, Michael Hammer in Tucson and several London researchers surprised everyone by finding evidence of the Jewish priestly line of males, the Kohanim. Half of Ashkenazic men and slightly more than half of Sephardic men who claimed to be Kohanim were found to have a distinctive set of genetic markers on their Y chromosome, making it highly possible that they are descendants of a single male or group of related males who lived between 1180 and 650 B.C.E., about the time of Moses and Aaron.[8]

In 2000, the analysis of a report by Nicholas Wade, titled Y Chromosome Bears Witness to Story of the Jewish Diaspora, “provided genetic witness that these [Jewish] communities have, to a remarkable extent, retained their biological identity separate from their host populations, evidence of relatively little intermarriage or conversion into Judaism over the centuries… The results accord with Jewish history and tradition and refute theories like those holding that Jewish communities consist mostly of converts from other faiths, or that they are descended from the Khazars, a medieval Turkish tribe that adopted Judaism.” [9]

A 2001 study found that Jews were closer to groups in the north of the Fertile Crescent, such as Kurds, Assyrians, Turks, and Armenians, than to their Arab neighbors, whose “chromosomes might have been introduced through migrations from the Arabian Peninsula during the last two millennia.”[10]

In 2010, Atzmon et al. presented research refuting the possibility of large-scale genetic contributions of Central and Eastern European and Slavic populations to the formation of Ashkenazi Jewry. Ashkenazi Jews, part of European/Syrian Jewish populations, shared a proximity to each other and to French, Northern Italian, and Sardinian populations which was found to be incompatible with any theory maintaining that the Askhenazi were direct lineal descendants of Khazars or Slavs. They did allow that some Slavic or Khazarian admixture might have taken place during the second millennium, and noted that the 7.5% prevalence of the R1a1 haplogroup., common among Ukrainians, Russians and Sorbs, as well as among Central Asian populations, among Ashkenazi Jews has led to interpretations for a possible Slavic or Khazar admixture, although this admixture may have resulted only from mixing with Ukrainians, Poles, or Russians, rather than with the Khazars.[11]

Using four Jewish groups, one being Ashkenazi, a Kopelman et al study found no direct evidence to the Khazar theory[12]while another study concluded that its findings “debunk one of the most questionable, but still tenacious, hypotheses: that most Ashkenazi Jews can trace their roots to the mysterious Khazar Kingdom that flourished during the ninth century in the region between the Byzantine Empire and the Persian Empire.”[13]

Some scientists believe that even if the theory were to be true, “only a small minority of the Khazars may have adopted Judaism.”[14] and that “the questions of whether there was a Khazar contribution to the Ashkenazi Jews’ lineage, or exactly what percentage of mitochondrial variants emanate from Europe, cannot be answered with certainty using present genetic and geographical data.”[15]

In 2013, the results of the largest genetic study on Jews released by the Wayne State University found that Ashkenazi, North African, and Sephardi Jews shared substantial genetic ancestry, that they derive from Middle Eastern and European populations and found no detectable Khazar genetic origins.[16] Another 2013 study of Ashkenazi mitochondrial DNA, found no significant evidence of Khazar contribution to the Ashkenazi Jewish DNA, as would be predicted by the Khazar hypothesis.[17]

Source: Wikipedia, “Khazar theory of Ashkenazi ancestry”, (accessed April 12, 2013)

[1] Johnson. A History of the Jews, p. 171

[4] Middle East origins: Jared Diamond (1993). “Who are the Jews?”. Retrieved November 8, 2010. Natural History 102:11 (November 1993): 12-19; “Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations share a common pool of Y-chromosome biallelic haplotypes”. Retrieved 11 October 2012; Shriver, Tony N. Frudakis ; with a chapter 1 introduction by Mark D. (2008). Molecular photofitting : predicting ancestry and phenotype using DNA. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press. ISBN 9780120884926. sharing many common genes with other Jews from 3,000 years ago.

[5] Wade, Nicholas (June 9, 2010). “Studies Show Jews’ Genetic Similarity”. New York Times. Retrieved 8 November 2013; “Who Are the Jews? Genetic Studies Spark Identity Debate”. Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Retrieved 9 November 2013.

[6] “Jews worldwide share genetic ties”. Nature (journal). 3 June 2010. Retrieved 9 November 2013.

[10] Almut Nebel, Dvora Filon, Bernd Brinkmann, Partha P. Majumder, Marina Faerman, Ariella Oppenheim. “The Y Chromosome Pool of Jews as Part of the Genetic Landscape of the Middle East”, (The American Journal of Human Genetics (2001), Volume 69, number 5. pp. 1095–112).

[11] G.Atzmon, L.Hao, I.Pe’er, C.Velez, A.Pearlman, P.F.Palamara, B.Morrow, E.Friedman, C.Oddoux, E.Burns and H.Ostrer. Abraham’s Children in the Genome Era: Major Jewish Diaspora Populations Comprise Distinct Genetic Clusters with Shared Midde Eastern Ancestry. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 03 June 2010.

[13] “New Study Finds Most Ashkenazi Jews Genetically Linked to Europe”. Jewishvoiceny.com. 2013-10-16. Retrieved 2013-10-31.

Kur’an-ı Kerim Bize Yeter Diyen Sünnet’sizlere

Günümüzde sözde bazı ilim adamı olduğunu sananlar Allah ile Peygamberi’nin arasını açmaya çalışıyorlar. Yani ‘Siz Kur’an’a bakın, hadisler uydurmadır’ gibi ipe sapa gelmez sözler söylüyorlar. Efendimizi devre dışı bırakmaya çalışıyorlar.

Rabbimiz Kur’an’da:” Eğer herhangi bir şeyde anlaşmazlığa düşerseniz; onu Allah’a ve Resülüne arz edin.” Buyuruyor. Hoca kıyafetindeki cahillerde Resülü ekrem’i devre dışı bırakmaya çalışıyor. Şeytan da Hz. Adem’i devre dışı bırakmaya çalışmıştı. İlmine güvenmişti akıbeti ortada.

Şu husus çok iyi bilinmelidir ki, Peygamber’i ve O’nun hadislerini devre dışı bırakmak delaletin, sapıklığın, dinsizliğin ta kendisidir. Allah’ü Teala, Peygamberi’ni devre dışı bırakmamıştır. Ayet meallerini okuduğunuz anda bunun böyle olduğunu mutlaka göreceksiniz.

Kur’an-ı Kerim’in dışındaki kaynakları devre dışı bırakanlar, yüce dinimiz hakkında ipe sapa gelmez cevherleri daha kolayca yumurtlayacaklardır. Bundan dolayı diğer kaynakları devre dışı bırakmak istiyorlar.

Harici fırkaları ile rafizi fırkaları Kur’an-ı Kerimin zahirine yapıştılar ve Kur’an-ın beyanını ihtiva eden Peygamber’in hadislerini terk ettiler. Bu bakımdan yollarını şaşırdılar ve sapıttılar.

Efendimiz aleyhisselam buyuruyorlar:

“Şunu iyi bilin ki bana kitap/Kur’an ve Kur’an-la birlikte Kur’an-ın bir mislide verilmiştir. İyi biliniz ki fazla zaman geçmeden karnı tok şişkince bir adam koltuğuna yaslanarak:

Siz Kur’an-a bağlanmaya bakın.( O’ndan başkasına inanmayın) O’nda helal diye gördüğünüz şey helal, haram diye gördüğünüz şeyde haramdır.”diyecektir.


Değerli Kardeşlerim!

Yüce dinimizin dört ana kaynağı vardır:

1.   Kur’an-ı Kerim

2.   Peygamberimiz (S.A.V.)’in sünneti/hadisi şerifleri

3.   İcma-i ümmet

4.   Fıkıh alimlerinin kıyasları

Bunlardan biri veya bir kaçı inkar edilerek devre dışı bırakılırsa milyonlarca din meydana çıkar. Buna da ancak din tahripçileri razı olurlar. Hiçbir tahsili olmayan kimsenin eline Kur’an mealini vererek “Dinini bundan öğren” demekten daha büyük cehalet olamaz.

Hz.Peygamber Aleyhisselam bir hadis-i şerifinde :

“Kendi reyi ile Kur’an-ı yorumlayan küfre girer.” Buyurmuşlardır.

Allah Teala:

“Sapıklıktan kurtulmanız için peygambere tabi olu, uyun.” (7/157) buyuruyor.

“O (Peygamber) kendisinden konuşmaz. O’nun konuşması ancak bildirilen bir vahiy iledir.” Allah ve Peygamberi bir iş, bir mesele hakkında hüküm verdiğinde, artık hiçbir mümin erkeğin ve kadının, o işi kendi isteklerine, arzularına göre seçme hakkı yoktur. Kim Allah ve O’nun Resülüne karşı gelirse apaçık sapıklık içindedir.”(sure 33/ ayet 36)

Kurtuluşumuzun tek çaresi vardır. O da Resülü Ekreme tabi olmaktır. Çünkü Allah (c.c) O’nun hakkında:”Peygambere tabi olun ki doğru yola eresiniz.” (7/158) buyurmuştur. Demek ki kurtuluşumuz Hz. Peygambere tabi olmaya bağlıdır. Allah (c.c.) buyurdu:

“Resulüllah size neyi verdiyse onu alın, sizi neyi yasakladı ise ondan sakının.” (59/7)

Değerli okuyucu!

Ayet meallerinin dikkat ederek okursan Efendimiz (a.s.)’in de helal ve haram kılma yetkisine sahip olduğunu göreceksin. Çünkü bu yetkiyi Allah (c.c.) O’na vermiştir; allamelerimiz vermese de.

Şimdi gelin birlikte tekrar Kur’an ayetlerini okuyalım:

“Allah’ı seviyorsanız bana uyun” (3/31)

“Allah ve Resulü’ne itaat edin. Eğer Allah’a ve resulü’ne itaattan yüz çevirirlerse, şüphesiz ki Allah kafirleri sevmez.”(3/32)

“Onlara Allah’ın indirdiği Kur’an’a ve Peygamber’e denilince ikiyüzlü münafıkların büsbütün senden uzaklaştıklarını göreceksin.”(4/61)

“Peygamber’e itaat eden Allah’a itaat etmiştir.”(4/80)

“Kim Allah’a ve Peygamber’ine baş kaldırırsa, onun için içinde ebedi kalacağı cehennem vardır.”(72/23)

“Biz hangi Peygamber’i gönderdikse, sırf Allah’ın izni ile itaat edilmek üzere gönderdik. Eğer onlar kendilerine zulmettikleri/günah işledikleri vakit, sana gelip Allah’tan günahlarını bağışlamalarını dileseler ve Allah Resulü de onların bağışlanmalarını dileseydi, elbette Allah’ı affedici ve merhametli bulurlardı.”(4/64)

“Hayır, Rabbine andolsun ki iş bildikleri gibi değil! Onlar aralarında çıkan çekişmeli işlerde seni hakem yapıp sonrada senin verdiğin hükme karşı, içlerinde hiçbir sıkıntı duymaksızın, tam bir teslimiyetle boyun eğmedikçe iman etmiş olmazlar.”(4/65)

Allah’ü Teala Kur’an-ı Kerimde:

“ O kimseler ki, Allah’ı ve Peygamberleri inkar ederek Allah ve Peygamberi’nin arasını ayırmak istediler ve ‘biz bir kısmına inanır, bir kısmını kabul etmeyiz’ derler. Böylece imanla küfür arasında bir yol tutmak isterler. Biz bu kafirler için aşağılayıcı bir azap hazırlamışızdır.” Buyurmaktadır.(nisa suresi 150-151)

“O’nun (Muhammed (a.s.)’ın) buyruğuna aykırı hareket edenler, başlarına bir belanın gelmesinden veya can yakıcı bir azaba uğramaktan sakınsınlar” buyuruyor. Yüce Rabbimiz.(24/63)

“Ey iman edenler! Allah’a itaat edin. Peygamber’e ve sizden olan emir sahibine de itaat edin. Eğer herhangi bir şeyde anlaşmazlığa düşerseniz Allah’a ve ahret gününe gerçekten inanıyorsanız onu/anlaşamadığınız o şeyi Allah’a ve Resulüne havale edin. Bu davranış daha iyi ve sonuç bakımından da daha güzeldir.”(4/59)

Değerli Kardeşlerim!

Bir alimin aklı ilminden fazla değilse, söyledikleri ve yazdıkları ile amel edilmez. Çünkü o yapayım derken yıkar. İnanan insanların inançlarını yıkar, amellerini zayıflatır, sapıklığa götürür. Günümüzdeki fil cüsseli serçe akıllı alimler bariz misallerdir.

Bu sapık fikirli alimlerin çürük yumurtalarından bazılarını notlar halinde sıralıyorum.

1.   Kur’an’dan başkasını, yani Hz.Muhammed Aleyhisselamın hadislerini kabul etmezler.

2.   1400 küsür seneden beri milyonlarca müminin takip ettikleri alimleri bir çılpıda silip atarlar, mezhepleri kabul etmezler.

3.   Şefaati inkar edeler.

4.   Mirac’ı inkar ederler.

5.   Başörtüsünü inkar ederler.

6.   Kaderi inkar ederler.

7.   Hz.Muhammed Aleyhisselama inanmayan kafirlerin de cennete gireceğini kabul ederler.

8.   Adet halinde kadınların namaz kılabileceklerini, oruç tutubileceklerini söylerler.

9.   “Kur’an, bireyin ahret işlerini tanzim için gelmiştir, dünya işlerini değil. Dünyada herhangi bir sistemle dünya işleri götürülür.” Derler.

10.       Hurilerin cennet hanımı olmadığını söyleyerek Kur’an Ayetini inkar ederler.” Onlarda erkeklik dişilik yoktur.”gibi cahilce söz söylerler.

11.       Ahir zamanda Hz. İsa (a.s.)’nın geleceğini inkar ederler.

12.       Kabir azabını inkar ederler.

13.       Salavat-ı şerife getirmeyi inkar ederler.

14.       Tevessülü inkar ederler.

15.       “ ölülerin arkasından Kur’an okutmanın hiç faydası yoktur.”derler.

16.       Milyonlarca insanın asırlardır kıldıkları teravih namazlarının olmadığını söylerler.

17.       “Zikir ve dualarda adet ile okumak yoktur.”derler.

Bu allameler (!) derler. Derler de nereden derler? Hiçbir kaynağa, kitaba dayanmayan işkembeyi Kübralarından derler. Bunlar etiketleriyle ekranlara çıkıp din adına zehir kusarlar ve milletin imanını çalarlar. Allah’tan korkmadıkları gibi yaşadıkları ülkelerin Müslümanlarından da hiç utanmazlar.


Fatwa of Deviancy on Ibn Taymiah

Ibn Taymiyah: the Wahhabi founder’s role model

It is worth giving an overview of a man named Ahmed Ibn Taymiyah (1263-1328) who lived a few hundred years before Muhammad ibn `Abdul-Wahhab. The Wahhabi founder admired him as a role model and embraced many of his pseudo-Sunni positions. Who exactly was Ibn Taymiyah and what did orthodox Sunni scholars say about him? Muslim scholars had mixed opinions about him depending on his interpretation of various issues. His straying from mainstream Sunni Islam on particular issues of creed (`aqeedah) and worship (`ibadat) made him an extremely controversial figure in the Muslim community.

Ibn Taymiya has won the reputation of being the true bearer of the early pious Muslims, especially among reformist revolutionaries, while the majority of orthodox Sunnis have accused him of reprehensible bid’ah (reprehenisible innovation), some accusing him of kufr (unbelief).

It behooves one to ask why Ibn Taymiyah had received so much opposition from reputable Sunni scholars who were known for their asceticism, trustworthiness, and piety. Some of Ibn Taymiyah’s anti-Sunni and controversial positions include:

(1) His claim that Allah’s Attributes are “literal”, thereby attributing God with created attributes and becoming an anthropomorphist;

(2) His claim that created things existed eternally with Allah;

(3) His opposition to the scholarly consensus on the divorce issue;

(4) His opposition to the orthodox Sunni practice of tawassul (asking Allah for things using a deceased pious individual as an intermediary);

(5) His saying that starting a trip to visit the Prophet Muhammad’s (s) invalidates the shortening of prayer;

(6) His saying that the torture of the people of Hell stops and doesn’t last forever;

(7) His saying that Allah has a limit (hadd) that only He Knows;

(8) His saying that Allah literally sits on the Throne (al-Kursi) and has left space for Prophet Muhammad (s) to sit next to Him;

(9) His claim that touching the grave of Prophet Muhammad (s) is polytheism (shirk);

(10) His claim that that making supplication at the Prophet Muhammad’s grave to seek a better status from Allah is a reprehensible innovation;

(11) His claim that Allah descends and comparing Allah’s “descent” with his, as he stepped down from a minbar while giving a sermon (khutba) to Muslims;

(12) His classifying of oneness in worship of Allah (tawheed) into two parts: Tawhid al-rububiyya and Tawhid al-uluhiyya, which was never done by pious adherents of the salaf.

Although Ibn Taymiyah’s unorthodox, pseudo-Sunni positions were kept away from the public in Syria and Egypt due to the consensus of orthodox Sunni scholars of his deviance, his teachings were nevertheless circulating in hiding. An orthodox Sunni scholar says:

Indeed, when a wealthy trader from Jeddah brought to life the long-dead ‘aqida [creed] of Ibn Taymiya at the beginning of this century by financing the printing in Egypt of Ibn Taymiya’s Minhaj al-sunna al-nabawiyya [italics mine] and other works, the Mufti of Egypt Muhammad Bakhit al-Muti‘i, faced with new questions about the validity of anthropomorphism, wrote: “It was a fitna (strife) that was sleeping; may Allah curse him who awakened it.”

It is important to emphasize that although many of the positions of Ibn Taymiyah and Wahhabis are identical, they nonetheless contradict each other in some positions. While Ibn Taymiyah accepts Sufism (Tasawwuf) as a legitimate science of Islam (as all orthodox Sunni Muslims do), Wahhabis reject it wholesale as an ugly innovation in the religion. While Ibn Taymiyah accepts the legitimacy of commemorating Prophet Muhammad’s birthday (Mawlid) – accepted by orthodox Sunni Muslims as legitimate – Wahhabis reject it as a reprehensible innovation that is to be repudiated.

Ibn Taymiyah is an inspiration to Islamist groups that call for revolution. Kepel says, “Ibn Taymiyya (1268-1323) – a primary reference for the Sunni Islamist movement – would be abundantly quoted to justify the assassination of Sadat in 1981…and even to condemn the Saudi leadership and call for its overthrow in the mid-1990s”.

Sivan says that only six months before Sadat was assassinated, the weekly Mayo singled out Ibn Taymiyya as “the most pervasive and deleterious influence upon Egyptian youth.” Sivan further says that Mayo concluded that “the proliferating Muslim associations at the [Egyptian] universities, where Ibn Taymiyya’s views prevail, have been spawning various terrorist groups.” Indeed, a book entitled The Absent Precept, by `Abd al-Salam Faraj – the “spiritual” leader of Sadat’s assassins who was tried and executed by the Egyptian government – strongly refers to Ibn Taymiyya’s and some of his disciples’ writings. Three of four of Sadat’s assassins willingly read a lot of Ibn Taymiyya’s works on their own.

Ibn Taymiyah is also noted to be a favorite of other Salafi extremists, including the Muslim Brotherhood’s Syed Qutb. Ibn Taymiyyah’s student, Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah, is also frequently cited by Salafis of all colors.

Ibn Taymiyah’s “fatwa” of jihad against Muslims

What is also well-known about Ibn Taymiyah is that he lived in turbulent times when the Mongols had sacked Baghdad and conquered the Abassid Empire in 1258. In 1303, he was ordered by the Mamluk Sultan to give a fatwa (religious edict) legalizing jihad against the Mongols. Waging a holy war on the Mongols for the purpose of eliminating any threat to Mamluk power was no easy matter. The Mongol Khan Mahmoud Ghazan had converted to Islam in 1295. Although they were Muslims who did not adhere to Islamic Law in practice, and also supported the Yasa Mongol of code of law, they were deemed apostates by the edict of Ibn Taymiyah. To Ibn Taymiyah, Islamic Law was not only rejected by Mongols because of their lack of wholesale adherence, but the “infidel” Yasa code of law made them legal targets of extermination. The so-called jihad ensued and the Mongol threat to Syria was exterminated. Wahhabis and other Salafis to this day brand the Mongol Mahmoud Ghazan as a kafir (disbeliever). Orthodox Sunni Muslims, however, have praised Mahmoud Ghazan as a Muslim. Shaykh Muhammad Hisham Kabbani writes:

In fact, Ghazan Khan was a firm believer in Islam. Al-Dhahabi relates that he became a Muslim at the hands of the Sufi shaykh Sadr al-Din Abu al-Majami’ Ibrahim al-Juwayni (d.720), one of Dhahabi’s own shaykhs of hadith….During his rule he had a huge mosque built in Tabriz in addition to twelve Islamic schools (madrasa), numerous hostels (khaniqa), forts (ribat), a school for the secular sciences, and an observatory. He supplied Mecca and Medina with many gifts. He followed one of the schools (madhahib) of the Ahl al-Sunna [who are the orthodox Sunnis] and was respectful of religious scholars. He had the descendants of the Prophet mentioned before the princes and princesses of his house in the state records, and he introduced the turban as the court headgear.[7]

Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhab would later follow Ibn Taymiyah’s footsteps and slaughter thousands of Muslims in Arabia.

Orthodox Sunni scholars who refuted Ibn Taymiyah’s pseudo-Sunni positions

Ibn Taymiyah was imprisoned by a fatwa (religious edict) signed by four orthodox Sunni judges in the year 726 A.H for his deviant and unorthodox positions. Note that each of the four judges represents the four schools of Islamic jurisprudence that Sunni Muslims belong to today. This illustrates that Ibn Taymiyah did not adhere to the authentic teachings of orthodox Sunni Islam as represented by the four schools of Sunni jurisprudence. There is no evidence to indicate that there was a “conspiracy” against Ibn Taymiyyah to condemn him, as Wahhabis and other Salafis purport in his defense. The names of the four judges are: Qadi [Judge] Muhammad Ibn Ibrahim Ibn Jama’ah, ash-Shafi’i, Qadi [Judge] Muhammad Ibn al-Hariri, al-`Ansari, al-Hanafi, Qadi [Judge] Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr, al-Maliki, and Qadi [Judge] Ahmad Ibn `Umar, al-Maqdisi, al-Hanbali.

Some orthodox Sunni scholars who refuted Ibn Taymiyya for his deviances and opposition to the positions of orthodox Sunni Islam include:

Taqiyy-ud-Din as-Subkiyy, Faqih Muhammad Ibn `Umar Ibn Makkiyy, Hafiz Salah-ud-Din al-`Ala’i, Qadi, Mufassir Badr-ud-Din Ibn Jama’ah, Shaykh Ahmad Ibn Yahya al-Kilabi al-Halabi, Hafiz Ibn Daqiq al-`Id, Qadi Kamal-ud-Din az-Zamalkani, Qadi Safi-ud-Din al-Hindi, Faqih and Muhaddith `Ali Ibn Muhammad al-Baji ash-Shafi’i, the historian al-Fakhr Ibn al-Mu`allim al-Qurashi, Hafiz Dhahabi, Mufassir Abu Hayyan al-`Andalusi, and Faqih and voyager Ibn Batutah.


Wahhabis attribute a place and direction to Allah

While accusing the masses of Muslims of being polytheists, Wahhabis themselves have differentiated themselves from other Muslims in their understanding of creed. Due to the Wahhabis’ adherence to an unorthodox, grossly flawed literal understanding of God’s Attributes, they comfortably believe that Allah has created or human attributes, and then attempt to hide their anthropomorphism by saying that they don’t know ‘how’ Allah has such attributes. For example, Bilal Philips, a Wahhabi author says:

He has neither corporeal body nor is He a formless spirit. He has a form befitting His majesty [italics mine], the like of which no man has ever seen or conceived, and which will only be seen (to the degree of man’s finite limitations) by the people of paradise.

Discussing each part of his statement will shed light into his anthropomorphic mind. Bilal Philips says that “Allah has a form befitting His majesty…” What he confirms in his mind is that Allah definitely has a form. He even specifies the kind of form by saying: “He [Allah] has neither corporeal body…” meaning that Allah has a form that is not like the forms of creation, and then says, “nor is He a formless spirit. Then he says, “He has a form befitting His majesty…” The problem with such statements to a Muslim is that they express blatant anthropomorphism. What Bilal Philips is doing here is foolishly attributing a “form” to God that, in his mind, nobody has ever seen. Therefore, Bilal Philips believes that God has some type of form, or non-corporeal body. No orthodox Sunni Muslim scholar has ever said such a perfidious thing.

Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, one of the greatest mujtahid Sunni imams ever to have lived, refuted such anthropomorphic statements over a thousand years before Bilal Philips was born. The great Sunni Ash`ari scholar, Imam al-Bayhaqi, in his Manaqib Ahmad relates with an authentic chain that Imam Ahmed said:

A person commits an act of disbelief (kufr) if he says Allah is a body, even if he says: Allah is a body but not like other bodies.

Imam Ahmad continues:

The expressions are taken from language and from Islam, and linguists applied ‘body’ to a thing that has length, width, thickness, form, structure, and components. The expression has not been handed down in Shari’ah. Therefore, it is invalid and cannot be used.

Imam Ahmed is a pious adherer of the time period of the Salaf that was praised by Prophet Muhammad (s). How can Bilal Philips claim to represent the pious forefathers of the Salaf? He not only contradicts them but is vehemently refuted by them. The great pious predecessors had refuted ignoramuses like Bilal Philips in their times long ago.

Blatant anthropomorphism is also illustrated by the Wahhabi Ibn Baz’s commentary on the great work of Imam Abu Ja’afar at-Tahawi called “Aqeedah at-Tahawiyyah” (The Creed of Tahawi), a work that has been praised by the orthodox Sunni community as being representative of Sunni orthodoxy. The now deceased Ibn Baz was Saudi Arabia’s grand Mufti.

Article #38 of Imam Tahawi’s work states:

He is beyond having limits placed on Him, or being restricted, or having parts or limbs. Nor is He contained by the six directions as all created entities are.

Ibn Baz, in a footnote, comments:

Allah is beyond limits that we know but has limits He knows.

In another footnote, he says:

By hudood (limits) the author [referring to Imam Tahawi] means [limits] such as known by humans since no one except Allah Almighty knows His limits.

Ibn Baz deceptively attempts to represent the noble Sunni Imam al-Tahawi as an anthropomorphist by putting his own anthropomorphic interpretation of Imam Tahawi’s words in his mouth. It must be emphasized that not a single orthodox Sunni scholar understood Imam Tahawi’s statement as Ibn Baz did.

Ibn Baz’s also shows anthropomorphism in a commentary by the great Sunni scholar Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani. Ibn Baz says:

As for Ahl ul-Sunna – and these are the Companions and those who followed them in excellence – they assert a direction for Allah, and that is the direction of elevation, believing that the Exalted is above the Throne without giving an example and without entering into modality.

Another now deceased Wahhabi scholar, Muhammad Saleh al-Uthaymeen, blatantly expresses his anthropomorphism. He says:

Allah’s establishment on the throne means that He is sitting ‘in person’ on His Throne.

The great Sunni Hanbali scholar, Ibn al-Jawzi, had refuted anthropomorphists who were saying that Allah’s establishment is ‘in person’ hundreds of years ago:

Whoever says: He is established on the Throne ‘in person’ (bi dhatihi), has diverted the sense of the verse to that of sensory perception. Such a person must not neglect that the principle is established by the mind, by which we have come to know Allah, and have attributed pre-eternity to Him decisively. If you said: We read the hadiths and keep quiet, no one would criticize you; it is only your taking them in the external sense which is hideous. Therefore do not bring into the school of this pious man of the Salaf – Imam Ahmad [Ibn Hanbal] – what does not belong in it. You have clothed this madhab [or school of jurisprudence] with an ugly deed, so that it is no longer said ‘Hanbali’ except in the sense of ‘anthropomorphist’

Sulayman ibn `Abdul Allah ibn Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Wahhab, the grandson of the Wahhabi movement’s founder, says:

Whoever believes or says: Allah is in person (bi dhatihi) in every place, or in one place: he is a disbeliever (kafir). It is obligatory to declare that Allah is distinct from His creation, established over His Throne without modality or likeness or exemplarity. Allah was and there was no place, then He created place and He is exalted as He was before He created place

Just as Bilal Philips affirms a form to Allah in his mind, and Ibn Baz confirms limits to Allah in his mind, al-Uthaymeen confirms that Allah is literally sitting ‘in person’ on the Throne in his mind. All of them have loyally followed the footsteps of Ibn Taymiyyah and Muhammad ibn `Abdul-Wahhab – the two arch-heretics who were instrumental in causing tribulation (fitna) and division among the Muslim masses because of their reprehensible, unorthodox interpretations of the Islamic sources.

Wahhabi anthropomorphists say: Allah is in a direction, Allah has limits, Allah is literally above the Throne, and that Allah is sitting ‘in person’ on the Throne. To a Muslim, the fact is that the Throne is located in a particular direction and a certain place. By understanding Allah to be above the Throne literally as the Wahhabis do, they are attributing Allah with created attributes and, as a result, are implying that a part of the creation was eternal with Allah. This opposes what the the Qur’an and the following hadith authentically related by al-Bukhari says:

Allah existed eternally and there was nothing else [italics mine].

Sunni orthodoxy clears Allah of all directions and places. To a Sunni, Allah has always existed without the need of a place, and He did not take a place for Himself after creating it. Orthodox Sunni scholars have said exactly what was understood by Prophet Muhammad (s) and his Companions (ra). Imam Abu Hanifah, the great mujtahid Imam who lived in the time period of the Salaf said: “Allah has no limits…”, period. And this is what Sunni orthodoxy represents.


The Magnificent Quran: A Unique History of Preservation


The History of the Magnificent Qur’an’, expounds upon the history of the Noble Qur’an, following the journey of the Qur’an, from it’s revelation, all the way through to its compilation and preservation to this date.

‘The Historyof the Magnificent Qur’an’ provides information on the Qur’an through a unique diversity of means, ranging from historical notes, timelines, diagrams and maps. However, one of the greatest accomplishments of this publication is to display hundreds of stunning and exclusive photos of Quranic manuscripts from around the World. These rare manuscripts, dating back to the 8th Century have been collected from both the prominent cities and remote communities of the Islamic world. These rare manuscripts have been showcased individually across the world, and for the first time their images have been compiled together in this historic publication. This  publication  displays manuscripts from Exhibition Islam Collection (UK), Topkapi Palace (Turkey) and the British Library (UK).

Pages: 584
Size cm: 30×34
Binding: Hardcove With Box
Year of Publication: 2010

Download link – here

source: darultahqiq

The acid test: Australian journalists must ask what agenda they serve

At the end of a week of much media hysteria about terrorism, the Senate passed arguably the most significant restraints on press freedom in this country outside of wartime
Fatal shooting
Police and forensic officers investigate the scene of a fatal shooting of a teenager at Endeavour Hills police station in Melbourne. Photograph: Julian Smith/AAP

It’s been a big week for the Australian media. We’ve published a picture supposedly of a terrorism suspect that was actually, not. We’ve presented front page stories full of unsourced and misleading or just plain wrong information about a horrific confrontation between a messed up, radicalised, dangerous Melbourne teenager and counter-terrorism police.

At the same time, as the ABC broadcaster Mark Colvin noted on Friday, the Australian Senate passed arguably the most significant restraints on press freedom in this country outside of wartime. Those measures are on their way to becoming law.

Given that parliament seems to be on a path to deliver a bigger surveillance state and less means for whistleblowers to expose its abuses or for journalists to scrutinise it, a bit of push back from the community might have been expected. This is, after all, a pretty important principle: public interest disclosure and press freedom.

Yet nobody, apart from the industry, the Greens and a couple of crossbench parliamentarians stood up for press freedom. The freedom warriors of the Coalition, and the accountability merchants of the ALP, waved the restrictions through without a backward glance. The community as a whole declined to be outraged.

The absence of cavil is a significant rebuke, given it would be obvious to most that the current environment invites more truth telling, not more secrecy.

So let’s stand still for a moment and put these two events together – our appalling collective performance this week, and the profound lack of public support for our institutional role.

I don’t think we can avoid the reality that these two eventualities are connected. There’s a harsh truth sitting before journalists and their employers this weekend, and it’s this: people don’t support us when we very much need our community mandate because, too often, we fail our readers and viewers and listeners. We often hurl some very hard truths at others, in fact we pride ourselves on it. It’s about time we joined a couple of dots in order to hurl a few back at ourselves.

This week we produced headlines, like the Courier Mail did on Wednesday with “Police Kill Abbott Jihadi” complete with front page illustrations suggesting to the reader that the prime minister had survived some sort of direct attack. (Police have been saying for days they have no evidence of a specific threat to Abbott, who was, of course, in a different city, in a building surrounded by armed police, before leaving for New York.) Reckless, and misleading.

In multi-ethnic Sydney, at a time of heightened security risks, huge stakes and community tensions, the Daily Telegraph screamed “Jihad Joey” at its readers on Thursday. A front page story reported that the “death cult disciple” Abdul Numan Haider had been “tracking” the prime minister before his “frenzied knife attack”.

It’s still not entirely clear if that actually happened, or what “tracking the prime minister” might actually mean in a connected age where we are all invited to #askTony on Twitter or like Tony on Facebook; where any of us can Google “where is Tony Abbott” and pull up a string of references. Noting this fact is not a bleeding heart exoneration of a radicalised kid troubling enough to be the subject of police interest, and out of control enough to stab two police officers – it’s just a simple statement of the obvious.

A number of reports this week had more in common with a graphic novel or a Marvel comic than anything that actually rang true in the real world. Compounding the beat-ups and the breathlessness, we’ve seen the return of “men of Middle Eastern appearance” doing nefarious things. It should be pointed out that some of the things they were claimed to be “doing” have later been retracted.

“It is understood” was also ubiquitous. We all periodically have to use anonymous sources, and sometimes that process brings us closer to enlightenment than to obfuscation. But we all know that something being “understood” is quite different from it being “known.” And so it came to pass. Some things that were “understood” on front pages were later more complex than they seemed. But the myths, once stated, are difficult to retract.

So the sum of the week was mistakes, sensationalism, stereotyping and the amplification of various “understandings” supplied by Lord knows who. Most reporting came from inside the tent of officialdom, projecting thunderously out. Right now, the times require prompt evacuation. We need to step outside the tent in order to have a good hard look in.

Any objective look at the week would present a report card that said: running too fast, filing too much, revealing too little. I’m certainly not putting myself above it. I’m not positioning myself as better and possessed by more clarity and steadiness and insight and truth-telling powers than anyone else. Truth is I’m flat out keeping my feet and my wits most days too. All of us are a heartbeat away from a career ending stuff-up – that’s the business.

But what I am saying is: wake the hell up. I have never been more resolved, in 18 years of practising journalism, of the absolute importance of our function in a democracy. I have never been more sure that the opportunity cost associated with doing this job is, actually, worth it.

I believe we matter. I know I’m not alone in that belief. Yet we act as though we don’t matter, and facts don’t matter, and truth doesn’t matter. Call this Dispatch this particular weekend a love letter to my profession, and an outpouring of grief at its failings.

In Australia right now, there is a complex story to be told. It’s a story with a geopolitical dimension and a local one. This story involves real people. How we choose to frame and tell the story has real consequences for real people – for neighbours living alongside neighbours, for the police and intelligence agencies working around the clock to keep communities safe, and for the politicians who must lead at this moment and make critical decisions about community interest and national interest.

The story we are telling right now is not just a bunch of disconnected fragments to feed the beast and flog a few newspapers. The real story here is whether or not Australia can come through a specific challenge to the fundamental notion of ourselves as a united, vibrant diverse community which has largely avoided ethnic and religious violence: whether we will affirm these characteristics or fall into disputation and rancour.

So as well as playing cops and robbers, we might have to start interrogating other valid lines of inquiry. A couple of thoughts. Have we done enough as a society to invest in our cohesion and mutual understanding? Is our ridiculously paranoid and hostile disposition to unauthorised boat arrivals sending a broader negative message to non-Anglo communities about our true feelings about ethnic diversity?

Are police doing their job out in the suburbs in our cities in an even-handed way? Is national politics helping or harming the current conditions? Are the legal changes being proposed in Canberra justified given the threats – or is this just cynical over-reach? Will going to war in Iraq make us safer, or make the domestic climate more dangerous?

We are, actually, capable of telling this story. It’s a story which demands the best Australian journalism can provide. But we need to take a moment to be clear about what the responsibility of telling it actually requires.

It requires us to seek truth, whether the truth is ugly and discomfiting or whether it is reassuring and soothing. It requires us to ask questions – a lot of questions – of very powerful people, without fear or favour.

It requires us to take the time to get things right rather than assuming in cavalier fashion that an error in the internet age is never wrong for long. And it involves taking steps to ensure we don’t inflame the tinderbox: truth is not inflammatory, but dog whistling and ethnic stereotyping certainly are.

To put it simply, this story requires what great journalism always requires: that no agenda is served other than the interests of the readers. If we are asking the state to be accountable and not abuse its power and position, then best we hold ourselves to the same standard.

If we meet this basic test, then perhaps we’ll be worth defending.


Sayyida Nafisa at-Tahira (RA) The Rare Lady of Purity

Sayyida Nafisa at-Tahira (RA)

Sayyida Nafisa

Sayyida Nafisa was born in Makkah on the 11th of Rabi`a al-Awwal, the same night that the Prophet (s) was born, in the year145 H.

Her father had been appointed governor of Madinat al-Munawwara in the year 150 H. She accompanied her father to Madina at the tender age of five. There she memorized the entire Qur`an and studied Islamic jurisprudence in depth. Being extremely intelligent she also became adept in explaining the Qur`an despite her young age.

She was the daughter of al-Hasan al-Anwar, the son of Zaid al-Ablaj, son of al-Imam al-Hasan (r), brother of al-Imam al-Husayn (r), son of the Daughter of the Prophet (s) Sayyida Fatimat al-Zahra (r).

She is from the family of the Prophet (s) about which Allah said in the Holy Qur`an

“Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O people of the House! and to purify you a (thorough) purifying.” [33: 33]

Young Nafisa frequented the grave of her grandfather the Prophet(s) (mulazamat qabri jaddiha al-Mustafa). The People of Madina loved her deeply. She became renowned for her abstemiousness (zuhd) and piety (taqwa), for fasting the day, spending the nights in prayer and for her excessive devotion to worshipping Allah (swt).

Sayyida Nafisa had many titles by which she was known among the people, derived from her many different miracles (karamat ).

She is known as
Nafisat al-`ilmi wal-ma`rifat, (the Rare Lady of Knowledge and Gnosis) because of what she achieved and accumulated from knowledge of the Family of the Holy Prophet (s).

She is called 
Nafisat al-Tahira, the Rare Lady of Purity, and
Nafisat al-`Abida, the Rare Worshipful Lady, and
Nafisat al-Darayn, the “Rare one among ladies in this life and the next”, and
Sahibat al-Karamat, “the Lady of Miracles”, and
Sayyidat Ahl al-Fatwa, “the Leading Lady in deriving rulings and verdicts”, and
Umm al-Awaajiz, “the Mother of Elderly Women”, and
Nafisat al-Masriyyin, “the Rare Lady of the Egyptians”, because of the Egyptian people’s intense love for her and her love for them, and her being their recourse for their every problem – collectively and individually.

Sayyida Nafisa used to pray the five prayers regularly behind her father in Masjid an-Nabawi (s) from the age of six. Her father used to take her by the hand and enter inside the room of the grave of the Holy Prophet (s), which is the house of  Sayyida `Ayesha (RA). He would address the Prophet (s) directly saying: “Ya Rasullullah!, O Beloved Prophet of Allah! I am pleased with my daughter Nafisa!” He continued these visits repeatedly until one day the Prophet (s) appeared to him in a dream saying to him, “Ya Hasan, I am pleased with your daughter Nafisa, because you are pleased with her, and Allah is pleased with her because I am pleased with her.


Here Imam Metawalli Ash-Sha`rawi has elucidated the true meaning of intercession (shafa`a) in the understanding of the scholars and saints (awliya) of Islam, showing that it is a method chosen by the early spiritual pioneers of Islam (as-salaf as-salih) as the most excellent means of approach to Allah and His good pleasure – the path to perfection and purification.

On the 5th of Rajab, 161 H. at the age of sixteen years, Nafisa married her cousin Ishaq al-Mu’taman, a direct descendant ofImam al-Husayn (s). She bore from him a son named Al-Qassim(r) and a daughter they named Umm-Kulthum (r).

She performed hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca) thirty times ‑ most of them on foot. She would say, “I am following my grandfather Imam al-Husayn (r) in doing that, for he said, ‘I feel shy to meet my Lord having never walked to His House,'” for which reason he used to make the pilgrimage walking.

It is said that on her circumambulation around the Ka`aba, she asked Allah (swt) “O Allah! be satisfied with me (mati`ani bi-ridaaka `annee), I see nothing that veils You from me.”

She memorized the Qur`an and its explanation. It is said that when she recited Qur`an she would pray,
“O Allah make it easy for me to visit the grave of Sayiddina Ibrahim al-Khalil,” for she knew he was the father of prophets and father of her grandfather Prophet Muhammad (s). She knew that the mission of her grandfather Prophet Muhammad (s) was due to the prayer of Ibrahim (as), when he said, “Our Lord! And raise up in their midst a messenger from among them who shall recite unto them Thy revelations, and shall instruct them in the Scripture and in wisdom and shall purify them. Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the Mighty, Wise.”[2: 125]

Visit to Ibrahim al-Khalil (as)

Visit to Ibrahim al-Khalil (as)-grave

It was only after many years that Allah (swt) answered that prayer making it possible for Sayyida Nafisa to visit the grave of al-Khalil, the Prophet Ibrahim (as) (in Palestine).

When she finally arrived, she sat there in front of his grave weeping and reciting, “And when Ibrahim said: My Lord! make this city secure, and save me and my sons from worshipping idols:” [14: 35]

As Sayyida Nafisa sat in front of the grave of Ibrahim al-Khalil(as), reciting the Qur`an, she felt an intense presence, almost tangible, and saw the image of Sayyidina Ibrahim (as) in front of her. Of that moment she said, “My heart began to beat harder and my eyes to blink.”

She called upon him saying “O my grandfather! – Ya Jiddee!” in the present tense. “I came to you in body and spirit…. as my soul has come to you before many times, I now come to you in body as well. I seek your good pleasure with me and I seek your guidance and instruction in order that I may worship Allah until my dying breath.”

At that moment she heard a voice emerging from the image of Sayyidina Ibrahim which was before her saying, “Good tidings my granddaughter! You are chosen to be one of the sanctified, worshipful maidservants of your Lord. My advice to you is to reciteSurat al-Muzammil, wherein Allah says, “O thou folded in garments! Stand (to prayer) by night, but not all night,…” [73:1]until its end and seek to meditate on what you recite.

“By reciting this chapter you will be guided to the forms of worship and devotion that contain no hardship, as Allah said, ‘Allah does not burden any soul with more than it can bear.’ O my granddaughter! The intensity of your worship has made your body weak – try to keep everything in balance.”

Zainab bint Yahya, Sayyida Nafisa’s niece, accompanied her throughout her life as her assistant, staying with her even after her marriage until her passing.

Zainab relates that Sayiddina Ibrahim continued guiding her, saying, “Read the verse ‘Thy Lord doth know that thou standest forth (to prayer) nigh two-thirds of the night, or half the night, or a third of the night, and so doth a party of those with thee…’” [73:20] until the end of Surat al-Muzzamil.’

Know that Allah made the night prayers voluntary, after it had been made obligatory on the Prophet (s), for He(swt) knows that many of His servants are engaged during the day in the struggle to educate people in God’s Way, or working for their provision, and this work therefore is a form of worship. Have mercy on yourself and give yourself a chance to rest in order to have strength for the next day. You are already considered among the first ranks of the pious.”

At that time she said, “O my great-grandfather  I am going to fulfill your instructions. And I wish from your pure soul to grant to my soul purity and refinement until I meet Allah (swt) and He is pleased with me.” She heard the voice of Sayiddina Ibrahim saying “O my granddaughter, Good tidings for you, Allah inspired to me that He has accepted your du`a. And I will accompany you until we meet in the world of souls in the everlasting life, and we meet on the Judgment Day. Then he recited the verse, And fear the Day when ye shall be brought back to Allah. Then shall every soul be paid what it earned, and none shall be dealt with unjustly.” [2: 281]

Relocation to Cairo

When Sayyida Nafisa was 44 years old she moved to Cairo. She arrived on the 26th of Ramadan in the year 193 H. On her way, she passed through the city of Arriche. When people knew of her arrival, they rushed forth en masse to meet her, for her renown as a devout worshipper and lady saint had preceded her. Historians say the men and women of Egypt went to receive her in a huge procession, riding on horses, camels, donkeys and on foot; waiting overnight in tents; greeting her in the morning with the chanting of ‘la ilaha ill-Allah’ and ‘Allahu akbar’, and accompanying her in a huge procession from Arriche to Cairo, according her great dignity and respect.

One of the notable merchants of Cairo, Jamaluddin Abdullah al-Jassas, hosted her in his home for many months. From every distant corner of Egypt people used to come to visit her and to take blessings from (tabarukki biha) her. Sayyida Nafisa felt that her presence might become too great a burden on her hosts, so she moved to a place of her own, in the District of Khalaf, in the Mosque of Shajarat al-Durr, in Khalifa Street, now known as the al-Hasaniyya District. The house to which she moved was owned by an Egyptian woman named Ummu Hani, renowned for her piety. This move did not bring any surcease to the flood of Egyptians coming from every far distant area, often in huge groups, to visit her and receive herbaraka, especially women who came simply to touch her and request her du`a.

Touching a Pious Person for Baraka

Al-Tabarani, and Imam Ahmad in his Musnad (5:67-68) with a sound chain as stated by al-Haythami narrated through Handhalah Ibn Hudhaym that the latter went with his grandfather, Hudhaym, to the Prophet (s).

Hudhaym said to the Messenger of Allah (s):

“I have sons and grandsons, some of whom are pubescent and others still children.”

Motioning to the young child next to him, he said: “This is the youngest.” The Prophet (s) brought this young child whose name was Handhalah next to him, wiped on his head, and told him,barakallahu fik,” which means: “May Allah bless you.”

After that, people started to bring Handhalah a person with a swollen face or a sheep with a swollen udder. Handhalah would place his hand on that part of his head the Prophet (s) wiped, then touch the swollen part and say ‘Bismillah’, and the swelling would be cured.

Sayyida Nafisa’s Longing for Her Grandfather (s)

At that point Sayyida Nafisa began to feel a tremendous burden due to the huge gatherings of people visiting her and asking her du`a, who came camping around her home, often overnight. She decided to leave Egypt and return to Madina al-Munawwara, feeling she was losing time for worship in meeting the endless throngs. Discovering her decision to leave, thousands of people sought out Sayyida Nafisa, begging her to reverse her decision and remain in Egypt.

They swarmed the Governor of Egypt, As-Sirri bin al-Hakam, asking him to request Sayyida Nafisa to stay. He paid her a visit, politely urging her to stay for the sake of the people who so needed herbaraka and her prayers. She informed him that she had decided to stay in Egypt. “However,” she said, “I am a weak lady and these people have gathered in thousands which prevents me from observing my daily recitations. Also my home is tiny and unable to accommodate these huge crowds. I began to feel extreme longing for my grandfather (s), so my heart is calling me to return to Madina to visit my grandfather’s (s) grave.”

The governor replied, “O granddaughter of Prophet (s)! I promise you I will try my best to solve this problem, for I know your house is small. But from the depths of my heart, without asking anything in return, for the sake of Allah I am giving you a mansion I own in the district of Dirr as-Sabah. I beg you to accept this house from me and to use it in whatever way you wish.”

Sayyida Nafisa paused for many minutes, engaged in deep meditation. Finally she lifted her head from her reverie and said, “I accept your offer of your house.” Then she said, “O governor of Egypt! What am I to do with these huge crowds of people?” He said, “Assign Saturday and Wednesday for people to visit, and dedicate the other days purely for worship.”

Sayyida Nafisa moved to the larger house, granted to her as a gift (hiba), without giving anything in return, for the governor had granted it to her solely out of regard for her personal piety and sincerity. She followed his suggestion, relocated her residence and received people on Saturdays and Wednesdays, devoting the remaining days to worship of her Lord.

Sayyida Nafisa and Imam Shafi`i

Sayyida Nafisa hosted most of the scholars of her time, experts in jurisprudence, hadith, and Qur`anic explanation. But by far the greatest scholarly gatherings were those she hosted for the pillars oftasawwuf and the pious of her time (Aqtab al-tasawwuf). Among these pillars of tasawwuf and fiqh was Imam al-Shafi`i who had moved to Egypt from Baghdad in 109 H., five years after Sayyida Nafisa’s arrival in Cairo.

Imam Shafi`i stayed in Egypt for over four years until his passing.  There he classified his books and assembled his school of jurisprudence; it was in Egypt that he acquired fame and people came to sit in his majlis – association. His new school of thought was modified greatly from the school he had developed earlier in Baghdad, according to the change of times, culture and customs. His judgements were written in the book “Al-Umm “.

Imam Shafi`i Differs With Himself

From Imam Shafi`i’s careful tuning of his “Baghdadi school” to produce the different “Egyptian school“, we see the importance he gave, in making a juristic decision about an issue, of taking into account not only the relevant verses of Qur`an and applicable hadith, but the characteristics of the people he was giving the ruling for as well, including aspects of culture, behaviour, the overall public level of morality and other intangibles.

So whereas Imam Shafi`i could be said to have differed with himself on some issues, unfortunately today, differences in jurisprudence between the imams have caused one group of Muslims to accuse another of insincerity, innovation (bida`), unbelief (kufr) and worst of all, polytheism, (shirk).

Scholarly and Spiritual Association with Sayyida Nafisa

Imam Shafi`i began teaching after Fajr prayer every day  his students of Qur`an and its exegesis (tafsir) and other distinguished scholars would sit to study. Immediately after sunrise the hadith students would arrive and the students of exegesis would leave. Following them were the students of hadith explanation, followed by the group of speculative philosophy (kalam) students, then students of jurisprudence (fiqh) shortly before noon. Thus Imam Shafi`i would sit at least six hours, with different groups of students, teaching one course after another. The fertility and fruitfulness of Imam Shafi`i’s fiqh was a result of his vast intellect and life experience, acquired during his extensive travels throughout Muslim lands, and in his ongoing debates with other scholars.

When Imam Shafi`i arrived in Egypt, a relationship evolved with Sayyida Nafisa, based on adherence to faith and piety in religion. He used to visit her in her home going to and returning from his associations at the Mosque of ` Umar ibn al-`Aas, in al-Fistat district.

Imam Shafi`i used to lead taraweeh in the Masjid of Sayyida Nafisa and she would pray following him for the entire Ramadan.Historians say that despite his tremendous scholarship, Imam Shafi`i used to visit Sayyida Nafisa to ask her invocation (du`a) and seek her baraka (blessing).

Imam Shafi`i also used to sit in Sayyida Nafisa’s association, learning hadith from her. When on occasion he was sick, he would send one of his students to sit in her association. He would invariably tell her, “Your cousin ash-Shafi`i is sick and requests your du`a.”

Immediately. Sayyida Nafisa would raise her hands in supplication, asking Allah to cure Imam ash-Shafi`i. Often by the time the messenger returned to Imam ash-Shafi`i he would find him already cured, by means of her du`a.

Sayyida Nafisa Recites His Funeral Prayer


One time Imam ash-Shafi`i fell sick and as usual sent his messenger asking Sayyida Nafisa’s du`a.

She sent him the message, “Tell him that may Allah make his meeting with Him the Best of meetings and may Allah lift him to His proximity.”

When the messenger returned with this message, the imam understood that his death was imminent. Immediately Imam Shafi`i wrote his will, stating that Sayyida Nafisa should pray the funeral prayers (salat al-janaza) over him. He died at the end of Rajab, 204 H.

Sayyida Nafisa also executed his will. Incapacitated due to her constant worship, they brought the imam’s body from his house in al-Fistat district to her home. There she prayed the funeral prayer (salat al-janaza) over him from the women’s section, following Imam al-Buwaiti who lead the prayer.

Sayyida Nafisa’s Majlis

Not only did Imam ash-Shafi`i sit with her, learn hadith from her, request her du`a and seek her baraka, but so too did many other scholars and great Sufis (kaana hunaak katheera alulama’i wa kibaar as-sufiyya).

Among them were

al-Imam Uthman bin Sa`eed al-Misri, 

Dhun-Nun al-Masri, Masri al-Samarkandi, 

Imam Abu Bakr al-Adfawi, (author of one of the greatest explanations of Qur`an, al-Istiftah fi `ulum al-Qur`an), and Abul Hasan bin Ali bin Ibrahim who wrote ten volumes on Qur`anic grammar, and many others.

Her asceticism

Sayyida Nafisa was renowned for asceticism and for living a life of hardship (zuhd). When asked what her meals consisted of, Zainab, daughter of her brother, replied,

“My auntie used to eat once every three days. She had a basket hanging in her niche. Whenever she wanted something small to eat she would find something in that basket, sent from Allah (swt).  She never ate anything other than food from her husband and that which Allah sent her as a gift.”

One day the governor of Egypt sent Sayyida Nafisa 100,000 dirhams (equivalent to perhaps millions of dollars in today’s money). He said, “Take this money from me. I ask nothing in return, but I thank Allah for this opportunity to repent. I give this money to you because of your piety.” She took that money as her own and distributed it to the poor until nothing remained. Princes, nobles and many ordinary people sent her gifts. She accepted them, then distribute them in whatever way she liked.

Historians report her niece Zainab saying, “I served my auntie Sayyida Nafisa for forty years. I never saw her sleeping at night and I never saw her eating during the day, except the days forbidden to fast – the two `Eids and the Days ofTashriq (11th – 13th of Dhul Hijja).” 

Zainab once said to Sayyida Nafisa, “You must take care of yourself.” 

She replied, “How shall I take care of myself before I reach my Lord? Ahead of me are so many barriers which no one can cross except the successful ones (al-faizun).”

The Servant Returned to The Master

When she began to feel her death approaching, Sayyida Nafisa dug her grave with her own hands inside her home. Every day she would enter the grave and worship in it, as a reminder of the coming afterlife. She used to pray all her supererogatory prayers inside that grave.

 Al-Allama al-Ajhuri said, “She completed the Holy Qur`an while sitting in her grave six thousand times (6000), and she granted the rewards of that recitation to all deceased Muslims.”

[This is in contradistinction to the Salafi ideology’s rejection of gifting recitation of the Qur`an to the dead.]

When Sayyida Nafisa’s illness worsened she wrote to her husband Ishaq al-Mu`taman, who was living in Madina al-Munawwara, asking him to return to Egypt. He came with their son Qassim and daughter Umm-Kulthum. She became very ill at the beginning of Ramadan, 208 H. Her companions asked her to stop fasting to keep her strength. She refused, saying, “I have been asking Allah to die fasting for thirty years; now you want me to break the fast?”

Upon her passing, her husband prepared to move her body to Madinat al-Munawarra, to be buried in Jannat al-Baqi`, but the people of Egypt asked him not to do that, but to bury her in the grave she had dug with her own hands.

The governor of Egypt along with many people asked Ishaq al-Mu`taman to bury Sayyida Nafisa in Egypt. They collected a large sum of money and offered it to him. Returning the next day, they asked for his decision. He replied, “I have decided to bury her here. I saw the Prophet (s) in a dream last night, and he told me, ‘Give them back their money and bury your wife inEgypt.'”

The night Sayyida Nafisa died was an immense tragedy for the people of Egypt, who were stunned at the news. Coming from every village in Egypt, people gathered at her house in Cairo, lighting candles and weeping. For them Sayyida Nafisa was a beacon of knowledge and a source of blessing, baraka, from the family of the Prophet (s). It was a day of sorrow and mourning throughout Egypt. The day they attempted to bury her, it was very difficult to move her body to her final resting place, due to the crowds of people lamenting, crying, and calling on Allah by His Names and Attributes. The like of that gathering was unprecedented in all of Egypt.

From Her Miracles

More than 150 miracles were recorded by historians as appearing from Sayyida Nafisa

 Imam Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani wrote about them.

The story is related that when Sayyida Nafisa arrived in Egypt and settled in her home, there was a non-Muslim family living beside her, whose daughter was paralyzed from the waist down. One day the girl’s mother brought her to Sayyida Nafisa to watch while she went shopping. She left her daughter in one corner of Sayyida Nafisa’s house.

Sayyida Nafisa began making ablution and water from her ablution flowed towards the girl. As the water touched the body of the girl, she experienced something strange. She began to take the water from Sayyida Nafisa’s ablution and rub it on her paralyzed feet and legs. Suddenly by Allah’s (swt) Mercy, the paralysis disappeared completely and she was able to stand.

Meanwhile Sayyida Nafisa was busy in prayer. The girl stood up and seeing her mother just returning from the market, ran to meet her to tell her what had happened. Her mother cried with joy declaring, “That woman is truly holy and her religion is the truth.” She came in, hugged Sayyida Nafisa, thanked her for healing her daughter and asked her to pray that she be guided from darkness to light. Sayyida Nafisa then taught her to recite the shahada.

When the father of the girl returned home that evening, whose name was Ayyub Abu Surraya, and saw his daughter cured, he was overjoyed. He asked his wife about what happened and she told him the whole story. He raised his head heavenwards saying, “O Allah! You guide whom You like and I now know that Islam is the true religion, completing what we believe in.” He went to the home of Sayyida Nafisa. Speaking to her from behind a veil he said, “I believe in your religion, and I accept it.  I testify that there is none to worship except Allah and that your grandfather Muhammad is the Prophet of Allah.” That miracle was the cause for the entire tribe of Sayyida Nafisa’s neighbors to enter Islam.

One of Sayyida Nafisa’s miracles relates to a Muslim man married to a Christian woman. They had a son. When he grew up he began to travel. While traveling in a country far from home he was captured and held prisoner. After hearing of his capture, his mother used to frequent the church, praying that her son be released and returned to them. Years passed but he was not released. One day she told her husband, “I heard that there is a saintly woman Nafisa bint al-Hasan al-Anwar whose prayers are always answered. Since you are Muslim go and ask her to pray for the return of our son.” He went and asked Sayyida Nafisa for her du`a.

Late that night they heard a knock at the door. Waking and wondering who it could be they went and opened the door. To their astonishment they found their son standing there. They asked him, “How did you come here?” He said, “Tonight I was sitting there in prison, in chains. Suddenly I felt a spiritual presence, and I heard a voice saying,  ‘Free him! Nafisa bint al-Hasan interceded for him.’  Suddenly  I found myself standing here at the door of our house.” That day his mother went to visit Sayyida Nafisa, thanking her for saving her son, then accepting Islam at her hand.

The Nile fails to flood

In the year 201 H. (816 CE) the Nile failed to flood, as is its normal annual custom. People went to Sayyida Nafisa asking her to pray that Allah cause the Nile to flood, for without the usual flood no crops would grow. Sayyida Nafisa gave them her faceveil telling them, “throw that in the Nile and by Allah’s grace it will flood.”They took her burqa and threw it in the Nile. Immediately the river began to rise and overflow its banks.

[One should note here this is a miracle extremely similar to the incident of the shirt of Sayiddina Yusuf (as), which when cast on the face of his father Ya`qub (as), was the cause for his sight to be restored by Allah’s Will. Again, such incidents clarify the true meaning of tawassul and shafa`a (intercession) by means of objects related to pure, pious individuals.]

Stolen wool

Al-Imam al-Munawi mentions a story of Sayyida Nafisa, related to him from al-Azhari in his book al-Kawakib as-sayyaara:

There was an old lady who had four daughters. This woman used to spin wool into yarn, then take the yarn and sell it. With half the earnings she would buy more wool spending the rest on their food and drink for the week.

One day the old lady set out for the market, with the spun wool wrapped in a red package. Without warning an eagle dove out of the sky, grabbed the package in its claws and flew off. 

The old lady, overcome with fear and worry, fainted. When she awoke she began crying. People around her, hearing her story told her about Sayyida Nafisa. She went to Sayyida Nafisa and related this strange incident. 

Sayyida Nafisa said, “O Allah! Exalted in Power and Owner of this creation: put right what the affairs of Your servant this lady fulana. She is Your servant and her children are Your servants and You are powerful over all things.” She told the old lady to return to her home and wait.

The old lady went home crying with worry for the sake of her young children. Night found her still crying. Suddenly a commotion was heard outside. It was a group of people seeking Sayyida Nafisa. They told her, “Something very strange just happened to us. We came to you because we have been ordered to do so.”

She said, “What happened?”

They related, “We were on a ship traveling at sea. As we began approaching land one of the planks suddenly sprung loose and the boat began to flood. Some of us did not know how to swim and we were in deep water still five hours from shore. The boat began to fill up and sink. All of a sudden an eagle appeared holding a red package in its claws. It threw that package, which was full of spun wool, into that crack filling it. The water stopped flooding and we managed to reach shore safely. We heard a voice saying,  ‘Go to Sayyida Nafisa.’

The boat crew presented Sayyida Nafisa a gift of 500 dinars. Sayyida Nafisa began to cry, “O Allah you are so merciful to Your servants.” She asked the old lady, “How much did you usually get for your wool each week?” The lady replied, “I used to get 20 dinars.” Sayyida Nafisa gave her the 500 dinars and she went home overjoyed. She told her neighbors what happened and they came in droves to see Sayyida Nafisa. Many ended up giving themselves over to her service, helping her cook food for the poor, distribute alms and aid the sick and lame.

Miracles after her death


The miracles after Sayyida Nafisa’s death are too numerous to mention. Once thieves entered her mosque in 683 H. and stole sixteen silver lamps. As the thieves tried to escape they discovered there was no longer a door. They were trapped inside until morning, when the caretaker arrived, opened the door and found the thieves with the lamps.

Recently in 1940, fifty years ago, a similar occurrence took place. A person, well-known in the area, entered the Mosque of Sayyida Nafisa and hid himself. When everyone had left that person stole a beautiful Kashmiri shawl, a gift from the King of Kashmir to Sayyida Zainab. When he tried to escape he could not find the door. He was kept prisoner until morning, when the people found him and took him to the police.

It is related in history that Abul `Izz al-Yamani said, “I was very well-known in my community, rich in my family, owning many farms. I was proud of myself and arrogant. Then I came down with a sickness that caused me to lose my sight and I fell into great difficulties. I spent most of my wealth seeking a cure, but alas doctors were unable to help me. They told me I would be blind for the rest of my life. Finally I sought out Sayyida Nafisa’s help. While waiting to see her I fell asleep. I saw a dream in which Sayyida Nafisa visited me and put something in my eyes. When I awoke my sight had been fully restored.”

The Story of Affan bin Sulayman

Historians relate the story of an Egyptian named Affan bin Sulayman al-Masri. He bought a house and one day discovered a treasure buried under it. He began to spend his newfound wealth on the poor and the unfortunate.

One day he bought 1000 camel-loads of wheat from Prince Ahmad bin Keeghalgh. After some time the prices soared due to scarcity of wheat, shooting up to thrice its normal value. Prince Ahmad called Affan to his palace. The prince told him, “Either return the 1000 camel-loads or pay me for the wheat at today’s price.” Affan bin Sulayman refused, leaving angry. He went and distributed all the wheat to the poor and needy, leaving only a small portion for himself and his family.

Prince Ahmad went to the governor of Egypt Taqeen bin Abdullah al-Harbi, an arrogant and ruthless ruler. He ordered that all of Affan bin Sulayman’s wealth and holdings be impounded. Affan bin Sulayman decided to leave Egypt, running from the oppression of the governor Taqeen. He told his story to a descendant of the Prophet (s), Ash-Sharif `Ali bin Abdullah a very pious man. He took him to the grave of Sayyida Nafisa and both of them sat facing the grave reciting verses of Qur`an, asking Allah to send the rewards of the recitation to Sayyida Nafisa and asking Allah (swt) in her presence and for her sake and the sake of her grandfather the Prophet (s) to solve the problem of Affan bin Sulayman. Suddenly they both fell asleep. They both saw Sayyida Nafisa in the dream telling him, “Go together with Affan bin Sulayman to the governor of Egypt Taqeen. I solved his problem.”

Together they left and visited the governor, who to their surprise hosted them in grand style. The governor said, “Sayyida Nafisa appeared to me in a dream saying, ‘Be generous and host As-Sayyid Ali very well and return all Affan’s money to him; he asked for our intercession.’”

Taqeen, raising his hands said, “O Allah forgive me for what I did.” Turning to Affan b. Sulayman he said, “I am releasing all your money.” The governor Taqeen ordered Affan’s money returned to him and ordered that his own treasuries be opened and spent on the poor. He used to say, “All Egyptians are afraid of me, but I am afraid of Affan bin Sulyman and his du`a at the grave of Sayyida Nafisa.” With that du`a, the governor of Egypt corrected his wrong and unjust ways and lived as a righteous governor for the rest of his life. He wrote in his will that he should be buried in Bayt al-Maqdis,Jerusalem. When he died, that took place according to his orders.

The Rare Lady of Purity

Sayyida Nafisa(ra)

Her Maqam

Sayyida Nafisa bint Al-Hassan Al-Anwar ibn Zayd Al-Ablaj ibn Imam Hassan

The first one to build a masjid by the grave of Sayyida Nafisa was the governor of Egypt, Ubaydullah bin Sirri bin al-Hakam. Then it was renovated by Badr al-Jamali, the commander in chief of the army of Egypt, in the year 482 H. It was renovated again byMuhammad bin al-Qalawun in 740H. Then Prince Abdur Rahman Katakhada renovated it further in the year 773 H.

Finally the Ministry of Religious Endowments renoveated it in 1314 H. to the structure it has today. The copper room which is entirely hand-carved over her grave was made in 1266 H. The door which is now there is ornately engraved, and was placed there by Ali Pasha, governor of Egypt in 1170. Water was piped in for people to drink. Above the water-dispensing room is a room for memorizing Qur`an. All Abbasid caliphs were buried on the eastern side of the grave in the time of al-Zahir Baybars.

From her death and until today, around the year and around the clock you will find people visiting Sayyida Nafisa’s grave:

from the highest Islamic scholars to common people. Over her grave her lineage to the Prophet (s) is engraved.

Under that is writtenAnyone experiencing difficulties in his life should visit the grave of Sayyida Nafisa, recite suratal-Fatiha (Qur`an, 1), surat al-`Ala (87), surat al-Ikhlas(112) and al-muwadhitayn (113, 114), gift that recitation to her and make du`a for Allah to solve that problem.”

Sayyida Nafisa Mosque

The method of greeting Sayyida Nafisa us also described,

“In a low voice say, ‘Peace be upon you, as-salaamu `alayki, O Sayyidina Nafisa, daughter of Hasan al-Anwar, son of as-Sayyid Zayd al-Ablaj, son of As-Sayyid Hasan, son of Sayyida Ali, and of Sayyida Fatima, daughter of the Prophet (s).”

[Excerpted from From the Light of Ahl al-Bayt: My Spiritual Experiences Unveiled]


Imam Metawalli ash-Sha`rawi

(Post on this Blog-Edited by ADHM)


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